Conrad Ludwig Benoni Shuddemagen
(Sept 5, 1879 - d. March 25, 1950)
An important source in the preparation of this account of Conrad’s life was the book, The John and Anna Shuddemagen Family, a compilation of the recollections of the children born to John and Anna Shuddemagen in Texas in the 19th Century. Their remembrances were recorded from letters and tapes early in the 1970’s and edited by LaVerne Bryson Holt, Conrad’s sister, Lily’s daughter. The book appeared in 1980. Information presented in the book was not only a wonderful history, but also an invaluable road map for my (Mel Oakes) further research on an outstanding early member of the UT Physics Department. I have attempted to acknowledge appropriately when quoting directly from the book. Having access to sources unavailable to the original writers enabled me to make corrections to their account.
A second source has been Shudde Bryson Fath, the niece of Conrad. Despite her 97 years, she continues to be as sharp as ever and very knowledgeable about the family. She has provided me documents and photo albums which have contributed greatly to the presentation here. Shudde’s mother was Lily Shuddemagen Bryson, Conrad’s sister. She adored her brother. Shudde says, “ My mother would have been delighted to see her favorite brother’s history become a lasting part of the University of Texas legacy, as I am.”
Conrad’s nephew, Gerry Shudde & wife, Janelle, have made available Conrad’s Harvard notebooks and textbooks. Gerry is the son of Conrad’s brother, Emil. He and Janelle run the family Shudde Ranch on the Sabinal River. These beautifully bound notebooks reveal Conrad’s dedication to physics and mathematics while at Harvard. Gerry and Janelle, on behalf of the Shudde Family, have generously donated the notebooks to the Harvard Pusey Library as a resource for future scholars. Click for description of notebooks.
Shown at right are Gerry Shudde, Shudde Fath, Janelle Shudde and Mel Oakes.
Here is a beautiful video of the Shudde Ranch.
Another source of information about Conrad’s teen years was a diary he kept in 1895. A copy of the diary was generously provided by Jeanette A. McCollum, granddaughter of Alma Louise Shuddemagen, Conrad’s sister.
Click for typed diary...
David Whittick, grandson of Louise Caroline Shuddemagen has kindly provided early pictures of Conrad, his grandfather and his family.
Forward by Mel Oakes
It is quite tempting to characterize the life of Conrad Shuddemagen as tragedy; however, to do so would ignore the widespread positive influence he had on so many lives, his wife, his family, his colleagues and his students. All attest to a caring man who sought knowledge, truth, excellence and service. He loved his family and they genuinely loved him. As a scientist, I deeply regret Conrad's unfulfilled potential in physics. A brilliant student, blessed with a first rate graduate education at a time when physics was undergoing a revolution, unparalleled since Newton, Conrad could have been a major player in the shaping of quantum physics and relativity. He excelled in classes with some of the leaders of this revolution. His knowledge of German provided him access to the German literature and to the many German physicists prominent in developing the new physics. In hindsight, one wonders if the decision to return to UT following his PhD at Harvard was a wise one. I think not. Texas, at that time, had few physics faculty and no one actively pursuing atomic physics, instead the faculty's focus was classical electricity and magnetism.
Leaving Harvard, where he had classes for example with Theodore Lyman, at exactly the time that the Lyman Series of spectral lines in hydrogen were discovered, to return to teaching elementary classical physics must have been disappointing and no doubt boring. Whether he made that decision out of nostalgia for Texas and his family is unknown. Had he been surrounded by colleagues fired with enthusiasm for discovery and “in the hunt”, it would be hard to imagine a sudden and complete abandonment of physics in pursuit of theosophy for the next twenty years. The loss to physics was a gain for theosophy. Conrad's creative mind and capacity for hard work indeed had an impact on theosophy, however, I prefer to believe that a comparable time spent with physics, his first love, would have provided a lasting legacy that would have occupied textbooks and endured through the ages. As evidence for this contention, I offer the well-received paper he published in physics after a two decade hiatus.
Finally, in researching Conrad, I discovered the remarkable story of his wife, Elizabeth Eberle, and her family. With the help of Paula Eberle Worgan, I was able to secure a wonderful collection of vintage photographs. In addition there were connections between the Eberles and the Rombergs. It seemed to me that Elizabeth's family deserved a separate entry. Her family story can be found at Eberle Family.
In the early history of the physics department, many of its outstanding students came from German immigrant families in South and Central Texas. Names such as Romberg, Schuhmann and Kuehne are prominent examples. Joining this list would be the Schuddemagen family, a family that contributed two students to the physics department and three students to other departments in the University.
Conrad’s paternal grandparents, Conrad (at left) (1811–1900) and Wilhelmine Bauer (at right)(1825–1897) Schuddemagen had come to Texas from Saxony, Germany, Conrad in 1847 and Wilhelmine about 1848. The two were married in 1850. Conrad was a saddler and Wilhelmine had a small import business, reselling fine linens, lace and toys from Germany. They lived in Round Top, TX. They had eight children, including Johannes, young Conrad’s father.
Young Conrad’s mother was the daughter of Louis Frank and Bernhardine Romberg, both German immigrants who married in 1853. Louis Franke is shown at right. Louis Franke (1818–1873), scholar, Texas Ranger, educator, and state representative, was born Ludwig Carl Ferdinand Francke, in present-day Germany at Guestrow, Mecklenburg, in 1818, the son of Peter Heinrich and Helen Elizabeth Henriette (von Kamptz) Francke. As the child of prominent families, Francke had access to higher education, earning a master's degree in law from the University of Jena. Following graduation Francke became active in opposition politics. After running afoul of the authorities, Francke elected to immigrate to the United States. While some sources claim that he came to Texas in 1845 and served in the Mexican War, other sources have him arriving in Texas in 1847. Here his name was naturalized as Louis Franke although he often went by Louis Frankee. Franke served briefly as a Texas Ranger before traveling to California to mine for gold. In the early 1850s, he returned to Texas, settling in Fayette County. Here he married Berhardine Romberg on January 20, 1853. This couple had six sons and two daughters. By 1856, the family had located near La Grange, Fayette County, at Black Jack Springs. During this time, Franke engaged as a teacher and worked for a time as a professor of music and ancient languages at Baylor College at Independence. In 1859, Franke returned to Germany in hopes of curing a medical condition he was suffering from. After a period of years, Franke returned to his homestead in Fayette County. Both he and his wife were leaders in the local Lutheran community, and sometime in the 1860s they donated land for the founding of an Evangelical-Lutheran Academy in Fayette County. In 187, Franke won election as representative for District Twenty-six—comprised of Bastrop and Fayette counties—to the Thirteenth Texas Legislature. On February 19, 1873, while serving in the legislature, Franke was robbed and fatally injured at the State Capitol in Austin. He is buried in Black Jack Springs. Information from article by Aragorn Storm Miller, "FRANKE, LOUIS," Handbook of Texas Online” Picture of Louis Franke provided by Paula Worgan.
Conrad’s parents, Johannes Alexander Schuddemagen (1852–1942) and Anna Wilhelmine Franke (1857-1944) were married Thanksgiving Day, 1878, in the Black Jack Springs community, later called Freiburg. They are shown at right on their wedding day. This is in Fayette County, about six miles from Schulenberg, seven miles from Flatonia, and 14 miles from La Grange. John became a saddler. Nine children were born to John and Anna, Conrad being the oldest son.
Conrad Ludwig Benoni Schuddemagen September 5, 1879–April 1950
Ida, who lived only six days
Lily Clara Schuddemagen- April 16, 1883–Feb. 12, 1983
Henry Edward Schuddemagen- July 24, 1885–April 14, 1970
Alma Louise Schuddemagen- March 6, 1888–October 2, 1976
Louis Otto Schuddemagen- August 3, 1890–1983
Louise Caroline Schuddemagen- August 3, 1890–1987
Emil Gerald Schuddemagen- October 22, 1893–1987
Walter John Schuddemagen- March 24, 1895-–1990
In 1891, the family moved to Uvalde County near the Chatfield Flag Station of the Southern Pacific Railway. Conrad, age 12, went with his father and uncle to build the new house on the 500-acre farm. The new home was 11 miles west of Sabinal which had the nearest school. John, Conrad's father raise bees. The children were taught by their mother while she sewed, washed or cooked. Conrad, the oldest, had several year of schooling in Freiberg, TX, and was able to drill the other kids on his knowledge. His sister called him “a natural teacher, though his punishment was done in odd ways.” At left is Conrad, younger brother Henry and sister Lily. Photo taken in 1887 by Tausch and Pannewitz, Schulenburg, TX. At right, is a tintype of Conrad.
In December of 1894, after learning what he could at the country school conducted by Mrs. Kessler in her home at Chatfield, Conrad entered a school in Gonzales. He stayed with Dr. Jesse and Marie Franke Fouts, his uncle and aunt. Marie was his mother’s sister and was a music teacher. While there, he helped the doctor with such chores as milking, harnessing the horse and buggy, mowing and gardening. He was put in 5th grade though he was 15 years old. Other students in the class were of comparable age. His teacher was Anna Laura Reese (1870-1931), born in Texas to Henry and Anna Reese, 1852 and 1849 immigrants from Germany. Henry was a newspaper editor in Gonzales. Anna Laura belonged to that legion of women who, forsaking marriage, devoted their lives to teaching. Her sister Anna attended UT. Conrad kept a "daybook" about his activities. It is transcribed here Conrad's Daybook.
In the first month, Conrad ranked second in his grade, but rose to first in the second month. He reported two competitors, Cecil O'Banion, a girl, and David Stahl (1883–1926). Cecil graduated from Southwest Texas Normal in San Marcos, TX in 1905, and she became a teacher, teaching at Baker School in Austin and living in the Hyde Park area. David Stahl was the son of Jewish immigrants from Russia.
Following the intermediate exams, where he ranked first, his uncle requested that Conrad be moved to sixth grade. Rozelle Nicholson (1863-1954) was his new teacher. Here, he found the work demanding and the teacher "strict". Rozelle and her sister were both teachers. Rozelle had earned a BA and was later superintendent of schools in Gonzales. She had taught at the school for eight years and Conrad said, “she knew how to manage a school room full of kids." However, he felt the school needed a “more efficient spanking department for the boys.”
The students studied music, algebra, civil government, arithmetic, grammar, drawing, history and writing. Conrad clearly applied himself as his spelling, grammar and penmanship in his diary attest. Every other Friday, they were required to present a news story. Conrad led the class, but reported that Ethel Rather and Frances Botts (1880–1955) were close. Frances' mother was a school teacher. Ethel later attended UT at the same time Conrad did. A picture on this page shows them as classmates. Ethel would have presented worthy competition indeed as the paragraph below from the Briscoe American History Center outlines.
"Texas historian Ethel Zivley Rather (1881-1967) grew up in Gonzales, Texas. In 1902, she graduated from the University of Texas with a BA in history. Awarded a fellowship, she went on to get her master’s in history from UT in 1903. She was subsequently a Fellow in American History at Cornell from 1905 to 1906, then the Buckley Fellow in History at Yale from 1906 to 1907. She received her PhD in history from Yale in 1908. Her master’s thesis, DeWitt’s Colony, thesis, and her PhD thesis, Recognition of the Republic of Texas by the United States, were published by both the University of Texas and the Texas State Historical Association, of which she became a fellow and, eventually, executive council member. (She received their Gold Medal–Mel Oakes). From 1911 to 1912, she was the Director of Women’s Religious Studies at Columbia University.
“In 1915, Rather married Ernest Joseph Villavaso, a professor in UT’s Department of Romance Languages. They donated their property on Duval St. in Austin to the Episcopal Theological Seminary of the Southwest, where a chapel was built and dedicated in 1966 to the couple’s only child, Ernest Jr., who died in 1947 at age 29.”
Whether Ethel and Conrad maintained contact after UT is not known, however,very likely, as she was at Yale while he was at Harvard.
Conrad had to leave the Gonzales school one month before the end of the term, missing examinations and closing ceremonies.
In 1997, after paying mortgage payments for seven years without receiving any paperwork from the owner, a situation that bother Anna. She approached the seller and inquired about the progrss of the sale. He told her, "Frau Anna, do not worry your retty little head as I will take care of everything." One day a lawyer came to the house and with eviction papers. The white frame house and the hand dug well was lost. The family was forced to move 22 miles east in the dead of winter. With neighbors help, two, twelve wagon trains were required to move household goods and bees to a homestead along the Sabinal Rives, which supplied good water. A new house was built in 1916 on the breeze side of the Sabinal. The Shuddemagen name at the ranch was changed to Shudde following the end of WWI.
Conrad’s Uncle Jess said he would be wasting his time completing the 10th grade and urged him to go to the University of Texas in Austin in the fall of 1899 and take the entrance examinations. He did, making the highest score and winning a newly-created alumni scholarship of $100, which helped to pay his expenses. He roomed at Breckenridge Hall for $5 a month and waited on tables for meals. Conrad and his brother, Walter, are pictured at right with his Winchester, about 1899.
Details of the UT scholarship were described in the January 2010 Alcalde, “As the ranks of UT alumni continued to swell, the activities of the Association became more numerous and diverse. The first scholarship, $100, was awarded in 1899—made possible through $1 contributions, some of them solicited in person by fellow alumni. Two years later, the Association created the Lester Bugbee Scholarship Fund. Named after its most active supporter, the fund grew with donations and membership dues. The investment was a good one, as its first beneficiary, Conrad Shuddemagen, graduated in 1902 as a member of Phi Beta Kappa.” Conrad’s sister, Lily Clara, also won the scholarship when she entered the University in 1902.
In 1905, Conrad’s brother, Henry, though receiving little formal schooling, took advantage of a UT provision that permitted students 21 or older to enroll and continue if successful. Conrad had grounded Henry in math such that he successfully completed a degree in engineering. Henry’s son, Rex, completed a PhD in chemistry at U. of California at Berkeley in 1956 under the supervision of Nobel Laureate Glenn T. Seaborg.
“During the summers, Conrad was off earning the next year’s needs by selling books. One summer he sold stereoscopic sets, a viewer which fused two pictures on an inserted card, making the pictures become three-dimensional. He took orders during the summer and made deliveries the last two weeks or so, always managing to earn more than $150. With matriculation fee of $10 a year and laboratory fees less than $5, he made ends meet.”
At UT, Conrad was quite an athlete. He was a track star specializing in the Mile and 880 Yards Run, holding several records at the time. Below are records reported in 1903 “Spalding’s Official Athletic Almanac.” His mile was 5 m. 9 s. (world record was 4 m 14.6 s. held by an American) and his 880 was 2m 11 3/5 s. His best time in the mile, however was 4 m 53 4/5 s.
Following graduation in 1902, after only three years, Conrad was awarded a newly created Evans Fellowship ($100). The fellowship was established for a physics graduate choosing to seek a graduate degree at UT. Conrad held it during the two years he earned a master’s. He was on the summer school faculty at UT in 1904.
In 1904, Conrad, (listed as from Sabinal, TX), presented an MA.Thesis, Some Observations on the Copper and Silver Voltmeter: Pt.1. A brief account of the copper and silver voltmeters. Pt. 2. The rotating cathode in the copper voltmeter. The following year, he attended Harvard on a Thayer Scholarship ($350) and a Whiting Fellowship. Conrad, at the end of his first year at Harvard, was awarded the Bowdoin Prize, the oldest prize offered at Harvard. The will of Governor James Bowdoin of Massachusetts provided funds "annually applied in the way of premiums for the advancement of useful and polite literature among the residents of Harvard University." Conrad received the award for his paper entitled, Some Facts and Theories in Solar Physics. During his third year Conrad received the highly prized John Tyndall fellowship.
While at Harvard, Conrad bound all his beautiful and detailed notes from his classes. Click here to see them.
Conrad completed his PhD in 1908 entitled, I. The Demagnetizing Factors for Cylindrical Iron Rods. II. A Study of Residual Charge in Dielectrics. A Harvard listing of early PhD dissertations shows that Conrad changed his name:
"SHUDDEMAGEN, CONRAD LOUIS BENONI.
See SHUDEMAN, CONRAD LOUIS BENONI.
SHUDEMAN, CONRAD LOUIS BENONI. I. The Demagnetizing Factors for Cylindrical Iron Rods. II. A Study of Residual Charge in Dielectrics.
The exact time of the name change is not known, however, likely related to hostile feelings toward Germans during WWI.
Following the completion of his PhD, Shuddemagen accepted a faculty appointment at UT. He returned as a tutor under Dr. W. T. Mather, head of the physics department, at an annual salary of $600. He bought several acres of land in the Hyde Park area of Austin, north of UT, and later subdivided it into residential lots. He built his three-bedroom house at Speedway and 47th street. The block was undeveloped but had been cultivated and there was a ramp leading down to a pool of water, evidently used to draw up water by mule power. Conrad and his brother, Louis, dug a well by hand that first summer and cased it from bottom to top with cylindrical concrete rings. A scaffold with pulley, rope, and a bucket were used to raise water for the household and garden. Conrad was an instructor in physics during 1908–09 and 1909–1910, earning $1000 and $1500 respectively.
In 1910, Shuddemagen published his first paper, Shuddemagen, C. L. B.. Tables of Demagnetizing Factors for Iron Rods. Physical Review, XV. 165-170 (August), 1910.
Here is a 1911 excerpt from UT Regents’ Meeting: “A few weeks ago Dr. C. L. B. Shuddemagen, Instructor in Physics, resigned his position. Although it was quite late in the season, Professor Mather, chairman of the School of Physics, instituted at once, at the President’s request, an active search for a suitable successor, and it is believed he has been found in the person of Dr. S. Leroy Brown, who has been for the past year Instructor in physics at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania.”
Louis Otto Shuddemagen (1890–1983), younger brother of Conrad, earned an MA in 1914. His thesis was entitled, Thermal Electromotive Forces of Metals and Metallic Oxides. During 1913-14 year, Louis was a student assistant in the physics department, earning $120. Louis published a paper with Professor S. Leroy Brown in Phys. Rev., p. 239, March, 1914. The paper was titled, Thermal Electromotive Forces of Iron Oxide and Copper Oxide. Upon graduation, Louis became an actuary for the State Department of Insurance and Banking in Austin. He later worked in Washington, D. C. with the Social Security Administration.
During his last years at Harvard, Conrad had become interested in theosophy. Sir Oliver Lodge, a celebrated English physicist and engineer, had publicly expressed interest. At Texas, Conrad had many heated discussion with William Mather, the department head. Mather descended from Increase and Cotton Mather and was a quite devout Christian. Conrad attended the 24th Annual meeting of the American Section of “The American Theosophical Society” in Chicago. He was a member of the Credentials Committee. There was a Lodge in Austin which he had organized and had recruited his sister, Louise, and his brother, Henry. In the 1911 issue of The American Theosophist, he wrote a number of quite scholarly articles: “The Travels of Apollonius of Tyana.” “The Legend of the Holy Grail,” and “The ‘Parzival’ of Wolfram Von Eschenbach.” In these papers, he demonstrates an extensive knowledge of the Greek and Roman world.
Conrad left Texas and physics to devote his life to theosophy. He wrote for the magazine Reincarnation and traveled extensively in the US and Europe promoting this philosophy. Conrad lived in the home of a physician, Dr. Weller Van Hook, at 7124 Coles Avenue in Chicago. The two-story brick house, built in 1898, is still standing and is shown album at end of page. Dr. Hook, General Secretary of the Theosophical Society, also wrote for Reincarnation. Ad at left from 1920 Capital Times, Madison, WI.
During the summer of 1923, Conrad, as Secretary of the “Legion”, made an application for a trip to Europe to “promote the interest of the Karma and Reincarnation Legion of Chicago, IL.” His residence was listed as Chicago, Cook County, IL. He noted that his father had changed his name to Shudde and lived in Sabinal, Texas. Conrad was 5 ft and 10 in. tall and had blue eyes, brown hair and was 43 years old. Sadly, his attached photo is overexposed.
Conrad sailed from New York on the USSS President Adams, on the last day of May in 1923 landing in Queenstown, Ireland. He visited fourteen countries, including Germany, Austria, Holland, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, England and Italy, returning to New York from Naples on August 29 on the Lloyd Sabaudo SS. Conte Verde. He was hosted by and gave many lectures to Theosophy organizations.
His identification witness for the passport was Frederick J. Dickson, Asst. State Bank Examiner, who says he has know him for ten years in Chicago. This would indicate Conrad’s arrival about 1911 or 1912 consistent with UT Regent’s Minutes.
Conrad’s wife was a second cousin, Elizabeth O. Eberle, born June 3, 1894, in Williamson County, Texas to Marcellus and Mary Louise (?) Perlitz Eberle. Mary died during the birth of daughter, Irmengard. Marcellus, devastated, died shorty afterwards. In 1910, Elizabeth and her two sisters, Hulda (Dec 10, 1892–March 8, 1979) and Irmengarde (1898–1979) lived with their aunt and grandmother, Frederika and Elsie Perlitz in San Antonio, TX. Elizabeth attended the College of Industrial Arts in Denton, TX. According to the 1940 Census, she reported she had four years of college work. In addition to her college pictures, several pictures were recently provided (2015) by her grandniece, Paula Worgan. In the summer of 1932, Elizabeth, along with many others, was rejected in her effort to cross the Peace Bridge into Ontario. No reason was given. The document lists her as 5 ft 7 in, brown hair and eyes, dark complexion and a sculptress. The document implies she will do some work as a sculptress at her destination which is Crystal Beach, where her aunt, Mrs. H. B. MacFarland, lives. (Conrad and Elizabeth were also cousins to Arnold Romberg, professor of physics at UT.)
In 1915, Hulda, Elizabeth’s older sister, was a school teacher in San Antonio, in 1919, a newspaper clipper at the U. of Texas, and in 1920, she traveled to Puerto Rico to teach. She remained there two years, returning in 1922.
Elizabeth's sister, Irmengarde, became a successful author of children's books. After graduating from Texas State Women's University, she moved to New York with an art teacher and worked as a drapery fabric designer. However, because of her love for writing she later took a job editing magazines She also did freelance writing on the side. She worked for Excella Magazine from 1924–1926, the New York Theater Programs from 1927–1928, and New York Woman from 1937–1938 In 1940, she is an editor with a WPA project. Eventually she got a job as the children's book reviewer for the New York Herald in 1948.
Unknown to many, her first book was published by Stokes, Picture Stories for Children (1921), which she sold outright for $150. Ten years later, she sent out her second manuscript Hop, Skip and Fly which was published in 1937. She also published books under the pseudonyms of Allyn Allen and Phyllis Ann Carter. She is noted for her biographies and books about nature and science, particularly her Lives Here series, in which she wrote about various animals and their habitats and her New World series about glass, paper, fabric, and rubber. At her death on February 27, 1979, she had written 63 children's and young adult books. More photos included at end of page.
Conrad, 48 and Elizabeth, 34 were married on June 10, 1928, in St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan, less than 100 miles from Chicago, their residences. He was listed as a publisher and she was a sculptress. George C. Horst, German-born Congregational minister, performed the service. (On a trip to Canada, Elizabeth listed her religion as Unitarian.) Dorothy Horst, George’s wife, and Frank C. Hewing were witnesses, both from St. Joseph, Michigan. Father of Conrad was listed as John A., mother’s maiden name as Franke. Elizabeth’s father’s name was Marcellus and mother’s maiden name was Perlitz.
On April 1, 1915, Lorado Taft gave a lecture in the Gunter Hotel ballroom on "Sculpture in Landscape or Civic Art." An entry in the San Antonio Light newspaper, April 4, 1915 is included here. Elizabeth, 21 years old, fresh out of college and living in San Antonio, was invited by Taft to come to Chicago to work on the massive sculpture, Fountain of Time. shown above. Several photos recently surfaced of Taft’s studio in Chicago at this time. It is my belief that the woman in the photo is Elizabeth. Next to the photo, I have expanded the woman and placed below it a photo from the San Antonio Express newspaper from 1920. You be the judge. Elizabeth assisted Taft in his major commission to beautify Chicago. In 1920, Elizabeth returned to San Antonio to open a studio and to raise the level and the awareness of art in the community. She work with artist Lucy Maverick and obtained many commissions. She worked to establish an Arts Commission in the city.
A Shuddemagen family story says that upon arriving in Chicago, Elizabeth answered an ad for employment and was abducted, and forced into prostitution until she escaped, probably around 1927. Conrad cared for her and they were married. The trauma of the experience haunted her for the remainder of her life.This article below lends some credence to this story
In 1921, Van Hook wrote in the Reincarnation magazine the following appeal:
"The Woman's Protective League
In various magazines over the world are being printed the few sentences presented below. Some of the world’s ills give the Elder Brothers of humanity especial concern. How through the past two thousand years, have they not labored to lift woman from enslavement by men! Now, in civilized lands, how differently she is regarded. She is recognized to be the one most quickly to respond to idealist sentiments. She is the one to lead households to the thoughts of God and The Law.
Yet, in how many ways even yet, do men treat ignorant and unprotected women as stupid and inattentive possessors of bodies who have not wit enough to protect themselves? And, if they have not, they will ruin them.
The Legion wishes to be sponsor for an effort to aid in protecting women. Will you not write, promising to give your assistance?
The White Slave Traffic
At the request of The Blessed One Whom I Serve, the Master Rakoczy, I am undertaking some work looking, first, to the diminution of the prostitution evil, and, second, to the abolition throughout the world of the trafficking in women. Assistance is very much needed in a variety of ways.
Of course, theosophists will be interested in giving help on the commonly unseen side of things where so much can be done to alleviate inner suffering as well as to suggest wise ways of living, and where aid can frequently be given in the liberation of women in duress. Volunteers for help in this phase of the work will be gladly accepted.
But this memorandum is offered for publication in the hope that many sensible and business-like men and women will cooperate with me in helping in the ordinary, physical plane ways of humanity. It is desirable to have helpers in all parts of the world, especially in all the large cities, in all lands. If you wish to help, will you not, please, send me your name with the title, Mr., Mrs., or Miss, and a brief, clearly-worded statement giving some preliminary information as to the means now being made use of by the government under which you are living to accomplish the two purposes named. Please send information as to any printed matter accessible dealing with the subject.
You may write in any of the Northern, Western or Southern languages of Europe.
There are no general funds available for this work, and money sent will be gladly accepted, carefully expended, and exactly accounted for.
If local bodies, such as theosophic lodges, wish to take up the work for their districts, their combined efforts will be gladly accepted; but a member who will play the role of agent for all should be selected to act as secretary and manager of activities. It should not be expected, at least at present, that I shall he able to distribute literature en masse or that I shall be able to assist in ways other than purely advisory ones in the activities carried on in cities or lands. At first we must assemble information and then form a simple organization.
This work will be done under the auspices of The Karma and Reincarnation Legion.
Walter Van Hook.
7124 Coles Avenue
May 14, 1921."
This article and its consequences may have led to the rescue of Elizabeth Eberle from her enslavement or was written as a result of her rescue. One bit of information raises some small question about the story. During this period there was a well-know sculptress, Abastenia St. Leger Eberle, who produced a sculpture entitled The White Slave as a protest of the white slavery social problem. The Eberle name and the content of the sculpture could simply be a coincidence.
In 1930, Conrad and Elizabeth are living on 8122 Muskegon Avenue in Chicago (middle house, built 1885), rent is $25/month. Her profession is sculptor. Conrad bought residential property in South Chicago and a second home next door in which Elizabeth had a studio and workshop. She secured several commissions, including some from the city of Chicago. During the Depression, they suffered economic hardship, living in a trailer at one point. Elizabeth earned badly-needed funds by drawing and sketching at public events. Conrad did his part by taking odd jobs around the country including rehabilitating a large apple orchard.
It was during this period that Conrad reported that he had attended some lectures by Albert Einstein at the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton. Einstein had come to Princeton in 1933 to escape the anti-Semitic campaign being waged against him in Germany. In the 1940 Census, Conrad and Elizabeth state that in 1935 they were living in Princeton, NJ.
Information generously supplied by Erica Mosner, Archival Assistant at the Shelby White and Leon Levy Archives Center, Historical Studies-Social Science Library, Institute for Advanced Study, enables the following account of the events in Conrad's life during the 1930s to be chronicled.
A mathematics classmate at Harvard, Charles N. Moore, now a faculty member at U. of Cincinnati, provided a letter of reference to the Institute. He states that he met Conrad at a mathematics meeting in Chicago during the summer of 1932, and Conrad reported that he had returned to the study of physics and mathematics and was anxious to find employment in these areas. Moore urged the Institute to give him an opportunity to study there to "show what he could do in the fields that first attracted his attention." Moore also describes Conrad's interest in literature, art and music. He mentioned that Conrad, while at Harvard, became enamored of theosophy because of the interest in the topic at the time by renown physicist Sir Oliver Lodge.
In a letter dated October 24, 1933, Conrad request information about the Institute from the director, Dr. Abraham Flexner. He reports that he has some property but little income. He and Elizabeth live at 2841 East 74th Street. The two story home built in 1891 was likely shared with their paying tenants. Because of the Depression, the income from the property simply pays the taxes. He asked if there would be any support for students who can not cover all their expenses. He reports that he has spent much time studying Einstein's relativity theory.
On November 6, 1933, Conrad requests an application blank from Flexner. He asked to be admitted as a student and will "proceed at once to shape my affairs to enable me to be with you as soon as possible." He explains that he shortened his name for "greater ease in business life." His respect and affection for Elizabeth is revealed in the following, "My wife is an artist, sculptor and painter, of considerable ability. In case it is expedient, she may remain with relatives; but I would like to have her with me at Princeton." Flexner responds to Conrad's letter urging him to provided letters of reference. Charles Moore provided the required letter. Conrad submits an official application to take courses October 8, 1934.
Some aid was apparently found since Conrad and Elizabeth both moved to Princeton and into a trailer "just east of the five large greenhouses of Mr. Thompson. Go north on Bayard Lane, after passing two filling stations at the foot of the hill, turn left at the sign 'Stony Brook Stables." Charles Moore also enrolls as a student in the Institute.
Conrad is in the School of Mathematics as a member. Members were required to have a PhD. The Institute’s Bulletin states that members will be working in small groups with the faculty in seminars. Einstein is described as participating and continuing his work on relativity and electricity and magnetism. The Institute records Conrad’s dates as 9/1/1934–6/30/1935. Quite a collection of famous scientists and mathematicians were there during that year. Noteworthy was Emmy Noether, a celebrated mathematician who had been forced to leave the University of Göttingen by the Nazis. She was employed by Bryn Mawr and though she lectured at the Institute, she received no pay. A number of scientist at the Institute tried to secure her a position, but there was much resistance to her gender. Conrad would certainly have met her.
The year at the Institute of Advanced Study was spent in the area of atomic physics resulting in a paper published in J. Franklin Institute, 224, 503–518 (1937) The first page is shown below.
In 1970, M. J. Cunningham and B. B. Wybourne, Physics Department, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand published an article in the Journal of Mathematical Physics, Vol. 11, No. 3, April 1970 on Quasiparticles and Atomic Shell Theory. The article includes the following statement which recognizes Shudeman’s contribution to their work, “Shudeman has shown that the states of an atomic shell may be classified by considering the symmetrical product of a spin-up (all ms = +1/2) and a spin-down (all ms = -1/2) space.”
E.U. Condon, the celebrated atomic physicist, and co-author Halis Odabasi, write in their 1980 book, Atomic Structure, “ The quasi-particle approach that was introduced to atomic physics by Armstrong and Judd, following an idea first initiated by Shudeman and elaborated by many others seems to explain many of the above mentioned regularities or simplifications.”
Shudeman’s technique was quoted in the 1993 book, The Collected Works of Eugene Paul Wigner, page 19, “This procedure is certainly lengthier than that based on coupling; in fact, the advantages of using coupling techniques to combine inequivalent particle can be extended by regarding spin-up (ms =1/2) and spin-down (ms=-1/2) electrons as distinct particles, as Shudeman later showed so strikingly.”
As late as 2001, B. R. Judd and Edwin Lo, in their article, Icosahedral Quarks, write, “We were able to go as far as “quarklike” in an early Physical Review Letter , but we had to resort to the more remote language of group theory in a second article in that journal , where our use of “quark” was disallowed by the editor. However, he had the grace not to take up the suggestion of a referee that our quarks might be suitably called “Shudemanian bogolons”.
At the conclusion of the year at the Institute, Conrad and Elizabeth remained in Princeton for a second year without an official connection. He used that time to complete the paper cited above. It is interesting that during this second year, Alan Turing was there. Conrad would certainly have visited with him as the members shared common spaces. Elizabeth, apparently, had established some acquaintance with Einstein, Paul Dirac and Herman Weyl. A letter from Director Flexner to Elizabeth, dated April 8, 1936, expressed his great pleasure at seeing the portraits of Professor Einstein and Professor Dirac she had painted. He tells her, "The portrait of Professor Einstein is extraordinarily good. I have seen him time and again writing with precisely the expression which you depict." She offered to give the portraits to the Institute. Mathematician Herman Weyl, also in a 1936 letter to Flexner, reported that he has sat for a portrait by Elizabeth. He considered it quite good, though his wife did not wish to have it. He suggested that Elizabeth would like to sell it to the Institute for a modest amount. The whereabouts of these portraits are unknown.
In the fall of 1937, Conrad returned to teaching by taking a faculty position teaching physics at Florida Southern College in Lakeland, Florida. It had been 27 years since he left the UT Physics Department. A revolution had occurred with the rise of quantum physics, most having happened since he studied physics. Much work on his part would have been required to teach the bright students in his classes and to maintain the respect of his colleagues.
Below is Conrad's picture in the Florida Southern 1938 yearbook, the first year he appears. He joined the faculty in the fall of 1937. The last yearbook in which he appears is 1943, suggesting that he taught there for 5 years. Conrad’s siblings said he taught at Haverford, U., Pennsylvania, Rutgers, Vassar, North Dakota State University, and University of Illinois, Normal, Illinois. He was forced to leave Elizabeth in the care of her sister, Hulda, who sacrificed her teaching career. Hulda had received a BA from the UT College or Arts in the summer of 1919. From 1941–1944, Hulda was assistant matron at the NYSTS School for girls in Hudson, NY.
Florida Southern, yearbook, Interlachen, , Conrad at left on bottom row.
Conrad took a leave from Florida Southern to teach at Vassar College in 1940. Here is a snippet from 1940 Vassar Report to Officers, page 90:
Vassar College - 1940
... Instructor Department of Music Herbert Dittler, Visiting Associate Professor Marabelle Stebbins, Marston Fellow and Assistant Mildred Goldstein, Assistant Department of Physics Ignace Zlotowski, Assistant Professor Conrad L. B. Shudeman, ...
The entry above Conrad’s name here is revealing about the changes that have occurred in his thinking,
“Conrad L. Shudeman
(he has changed his name)
BS, MS, PhD
“Texas...studied for two years under Einstein at Princeton...stamp collector...once much interested in philosophy, but now regards life and living as all important...a ruralite...rides bicycle five miles to school... gardening... likes handball because it develops the man symmetrically...observes world politics...is anxious to help students... has a sincere smile...quiet manner...always much interested in astronomy but never able to go into it professionally”
Entry with Shuddemagen. He is second from right on bottom row.
“back to nature...a ruralite...pedaling to school...bronzed lean features...Phi Beta Kappa...with a flair for the simple things... inquisitor in the mysteries of the universe...student of Einstein...former student of philosophy...modest to the point of humility...”
Here we see Conrad with two students who had ground a lens and made a telescope. Conrad is at right.
The college paper describes Conrad, “Dr. Conrad L. Shudeman collects stamps–enjoys living in the country–likes wild animals. Reads the News Week and the Tampa Tribune for information on world affairs. Doesn’t like novels, movies or 99 percent of the radio programs. Interested in the study of life–almost his religion. Believes life is the greatest reality–what people do is mostly poor imitation. Enjoys the music of Brahms and Beethoven.”
In 1943, Conrad taught at Haverford in Pennsylvania, as the picture below demonstrates. “Shudeman” is third from the right on the back row in the light suit. Being war time, trained physics teachers were in short supply. Haverford had many Harvard graduates and very likely some were friends or classmates of his. He lived in Founders Hall. Why he left Florida Southern is not known.
In a 1944 city directory, Conrad is an assistant professor at Smith College in Northampton, MA. He is living in the YMCA. He likely taught there spring 1943.
In Vassar Chronicle, Volume I, Number 8, 6 May 1944, the following announcement is found, “New Physics Teacher. Although the physics department has lost two of its members, it has a new acting assistant professor for the third term, Conrad L. B. Shudeman, head of the Department of Physics at Florida Southern College from 1937 to 1943. Mr. Shudeman received his degrees of Bachelor of Science and Master of Science from the University of Texas, and his PhD from Harvard. He has come to Vassar from Haverford College where he was visiting professor last winter.” Gladys A. Anslow, Chair of Physics at Smith College reports in a letter (July 1, 1944) to the Director of the Institute of Advanced Study, Frank Aydelotte, that Conrad was teaching at Vassar during spring of 1944. She seeks information about him in order to determine if they should offer him a temporary position as her replacement while she is in Washington, DC.
In 1945, he is back in Northampton, but attached to Amherst College. In Fall 1945, he is an instructor at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ, living at 83 Morrell St.
Pre-October 1946 Faculty Meeting at University Navy Pier Site
Photo by Thomas Fehr
Conrad Shuddemagen might be person in middle of second row with newspaper on lap, light colored suit and dark tie.
A letter to Mrs.Tanya Grebentschikoff, wife of George Grebentschikoff. She was advisor for the student newspaper. Had been a ballerina and later served as the school dietitian.
George Dmitrievich Grebenstchikoff, PhD, born 6 May 1883 and died 11 January 1964, was an accomplished author as well as a professor of Russian literature. He was born in the Tomsk Oblast of Siberian Russia and married Tatiana Denisovna Stadnik in 1917. USA in 1924. It was in 1925 that he and Ilia Tolstoy (Leo’s son) founded the Churaevka artists' colony in Southbury, Connecticut. This is where Prof. Grebenstchikoff also directed the Alatas publishing house. Later on the Grebenstchikoffs moved to Lakeland, Florida, where George taught creative writing along with Russian literature at Florida Southern College, now Florida Southern University, from 1941 to 1952.
The inscription at the bottom of the letter says, “Please save the 3 stamps on the envelope.” Stamps were a hobby of Conrad’s. Dr. Ludd M. Spivey was College President.
The letter above was provided by Immigration History Research Center, University of Minnesota.
During the year 1946–1947, Conrad was employed as an instructor in the Physics Department at the University of Illinois, Chicago Undergraduate Division. His salary as shown in the 1946-47 College Budget Document was $3800. There is a picture from an October 1946 meeting of the administration and faculty which has a person that could be Conrad. It was taken at the Navy Pier in Chicago. (Information regarding Conrad at UIC was generously provided by Scott Pitol, CA University Archivist & Assistant Professor University of Illinois at Chicago)
While teaching in Chicago, Conrad had an accident on the elevated train stairway. He apparently suffered a concussion and the administration felt he would be unable to carry out his duty and relieved him of his teaching position. He returned to Lakeland and Elizabeth. Her mental condition deteriorated and she commandeered a man with a truck to take Conrad and her into Georgia. Elizabeth was committed to the Florida State Hospital on July 19, 1948. She was declared incompetent by reason of dementia praecox. Her hallucinations being "Writer thinks someone going to kill her. Her propensities are mild." Strangly, the Court states that she has no relatives who are legally responsible for here support and maintenance and are able to pay in full or in part for treatment of said person. Conrad and Elizabeth's sister Hulda Eberle and Elizabeth's aunt, Miss Elsie Perlitz are listed in the document, all living in Lakeland, FL.
Conrad’s siblings secured his release from authorities and he lived with sister-in-law, Hulda (b.12/10/1892–d. 3/8/1979, Woodland Hills, Los Angeles) and Julia Perlitz on a 40-acre tract until he died on March 25, 1950 in Bartow, FL. He was cremated. Hulda was a matron at a girls school in Hudson, New York before coming to Florida around 1947. In Lakeland, she was an Instructor at the Lakeland Business Institute until at least 1960.
Elizabeth died March 22, 1976, at the age of 81 in 323 Chattahoochee, Gadsden County, FL. Here is a newspaper report of burial arrangements at the Florida Asylum where Elizabeth died. She is buried in the hospital cemetery.
ST. PETERSBURG TIMES MONDAY, AUGUST 16, 1976
Florida State Hospital Cemetery: Efficient, Anonymous
United Press International
“CHATTAHOOCHEE - Florida State Hospital has enough need for an undertaker to hire one full time. The hospital has its own mortuary, full time funeral director, mortician and grave yard. The coffins are made on the hospital grounds. So are the tombstones. The graves are dug by inmates from the nearby River Junction State Work Camp. There are about 6,000 graves at the cemetery—27 acres on a hilltop a couple of miles from the city. There is no sign, no official name and the gate is usually locked.
THE GRAVES are of Chattahoochee patients who died over the past 45 years. Most of the tombstones carry no names, but a number that has meaning only to the few hospital officials with access to confidential patient files. The stigma associated with mental illness led to the confidentiality and numbers, not names, on the tombstones. The coffins are made from medium-grade pine in the hospital carpentry shop, lined with white muslin stapled to the inside walls and painted battleship gray.
Hospital officials have become highly efficient in disposing of their dead. One or two graves are always ready—even though there may be no body that particular day for them. When one grave is filled, another is dug a foot away. There are 6,000 graves at the cemetery—27 acres on a hilltop. There is no sign, no official name and the gate is usually locked. Several dozen tombstones are neatly stacked in a work shed.
FAMILIES of the patients can arrange burial or leave it to the state, says funeral director Leonard Herring. There is no charge to the family, although it can voluntarily pay about $170. Last year, 216 patients died at the hospital. So far this year, 105 have died. About one third of them are buried in the hospital cemetery. There is a small chapel at the hospital morgue. Services can be arranged if the families want it. "We do it however they want," Herring said. "We just try to please the family. Most people seem real pleased. We get lots of letters."
Funerals are held on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays because that works out best for the prison labor, he said. The chaplain calls shortly after 8 a.m. on each of the days to see if there are to be any funerals.”
The facility at art studios for the patients to use. Hulda Eberle, Elizabeth's sister, told Paula Eberle Worgan, her grand-niece, that Elizabeth would help in the front office, and visitors would not realize that she was a patient. Nice to think she was able to continue her art. Sad to think she is buried in an unmarked grave.
Tributes by Conrad’s Siblings:
“I want to express my belated gratitude and that of my siblings for the beneficent influence of Conrad on us. It was my privilege to live with him and see him in action probably longer and at closer range than my brothers and sisters.
I have never seen a more determined individual when he thought he was right. He made up his mind without hesitation or delay and came out with his decision. He stood for law and order, for improvement, for education, for the cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude. We are all in his debt in making something of our lives. What an interest he took in life, in nature, in his books, in his stamp collection and in his sports.”
“Once Mother had given Conrad something to do and about that time, Papa called to him with another chore. Conrad came down the stairs, exclaiming ‘Ein Knecht kann nicht zwei Herren dienen’ (A slave cannot serve two masters).”
“There was no school accessible in the frontier country, so mother taught us at each spare moment, when sitting to sew or mend. All of us were voracious readers but books were hard to obtain. Grandmother Franke supplied them at Christmas. “
“After Conrad attended UT, he returned to the ranch one spring with a few used tennis balls. He knew how to play and keep score and a court was set up near the house made by smoothing the caliche soil. A post was put on each side with a wire or rope stretched between the posts for a net. Then paddles were made of thin boards to serve as racquets. Thus we learned the fundamentals of tennis and became quite good players.” Lily played her last two years with the varsity and she played doubles with Margaret Beadle. Lily and Margaret were the first two women to wear the University letter “T” for athletics. Lily published a paper in the Biological Bulletin, Vol. XII., No. 4, March 1907, appropriately titled, “On the Anatomy of the Central Nervous System of the Nine-banded Armadillo (Tatu Novemcinctum Linn.). The four specimens used in the study were captured in Austin.
Biographical Information on Siblings
Lily Clara Shudemagen Bryson:
The newspaper column at right describes some of Lily’s history. She attended UT Medical School in Galveston for two years. Regent Brackenridge provided a scholarship in an effort to graduate more women doctors. She said she disappointed Colonel Brackenridge by marrying John Gordon Bryson, another medical student, on Dec 27, 1909, and dropping out.
Walter John Shuddemagen (Shudde)
Conrad’s brother Walter John Shuddemagen attended UT Galveston Medical School.
Henry Edward Shuddemagen (Shudde)
Henry Edward Shudde, another brother, became a civil engineer. He also ran track. Henry was a Captain and Commanding Officer C Co 504th Engineer Service Battalion. He embarked from Hoboken, N. J. on November 25, 1917, destination France. His company constructed an impressive number of warehouse buildings, train tracks, and support structures such as a beef storage and refrigerating unit. They continued this work until the Armistice was sign. Below is the conclusion of a report written by Henry about the work in France. Note the beautiful penmanship in his signature. A skill apparently shared by his siblings.
Here is a bio of Henry from 1922-23, Who’s Who in Engineering.
"Henry Edward Shudde, Apartado No. 241. Tampico, Mexico: Res. P. O. Box 267, Sabinal, Texas
"Civil Engineer: b. Fayette County, Texas, July 24, 1885; son of J. A. and Anna W. (Franke) Shudde; parents born in Texas. Grandparents of Freyburg, Germany; attended Texas University, Austin Texas. Draftsman and Instrument Man for Stone and Webster Eng. Corp, Feb-Nov, 1907; Assistant and Special Engineer, Southern Pacific R. R., 1909-11: Engineer, rivers and harbors, U. S. Engineering Department on harbor improvement, jetty and dike construction, dredging and hydrographic surveying, etc., 1911-17; oil field engineer on pipe line construction since 1919. Entered Officers' Training Camp, May, 1917, Command: 1st Lt., June 19, 1917; promoted to Capt., U. S. Corps of Engineers, Aug, 15, 1917; sailed for France, November 25, 1917; returned to U. S. June 8, 1919; did construction work in France. Member American Association of Engineers, Am. Legion, Mason;, Recreations: Hunting, fishing, outdoor sports. Clubs: American Legion (Tampico), Scottish Rite (Galveston), Progressive, Theosophic."
Louis O. Shuddemagen (Shudde) (Twin of Louise Caroline Shuddemagen)
Obituary for Conrad’s brother Louis which appeared in The Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 1983, Vol 35.
1890 Louis O. Shudde 1983
Louis O. Shudde, a Fellow of the Society, died on January 11, 1983. He was ninety-two years old. He was born in Fayette County, Texas and was graduated from the University of Texas with a bachelor of arts degree in 1913 and a master of arts degree in 1914. His thesis was entitled, Thermal Electromotive Forces of Metals and Metallic Oxides.
Mr. Shudde’s first job was with the Insurance and Banking Department of Texas from 1914 to 1918. He subsequently worked for F. J. Haight and Company of Indianapolis, the Insurance Department of Iowa, Merchants Life Insurance, San Jacinto Life Insurance, National Security Life Insurance and United Fidelity Life Insurance Company between 1919 and 1937. Then he joined the Social Security Administration and the Department of Health, Education and Welfare from 1937 to 1955. He subsequently worked for the Federal Housing Administration until he retired in 1966. He was a member of the University Christian Church, the International Good Neighbor Council, the Austin (Texas) Genealogical Society, the Austin Poetry Society, the Theosophical Society of America, the University of Texas Ex-Students Association, and the University Masonic Lodge and Ben Hur Shrine Temple. (He published a number of important papers related to Old Age Survivor Insurance.–MO)
He is survived by a daughter, a sister, two brothers and four grandchildren. (Louis’ wife, Jessie Garlock, is buried in Arlington Cemetery. Grave location, Section 39, Grave 1459. He enlisted May 27, 1918, discharged Aug 7, 1919. The plot was reserved to include Louis also, however, he is buried in Austin Memorial Park Cemetery near his second wife Nona Parker Clement (1884–1978. —Mel Oakes)
Louis also served in the Marine Corp.
Louise Caroline Shuddemagen (Twin of Louis O. Shuddemagen)
Louise was born August 3, 1890. In 1907, at the age of 17, her parents and Conrad decided she should go to Boston and study art and music. Conrad was there working on his PhD at Harvard. Louise had shown a talent for drawing as a young girl. Since her sister, Lily, was in medical school in Galveston, Louise was to travel by train from Sabinal to San Antonio, then catch the Southern Pacific to Galveston and stay with Lily. From Galveston, Lily took a Mallory Line freighter to New York, few passenger were on the ship. As they approached Key West, they encountered a major storm, leading to seasickness among most of the passengers. Arrival in New York was confused by bad weather. Conrad, who had journeyed to New York to meet Louise, was told that the weather would delay docking, in fact, the ship did dock and, finding no one, Louise went to Grand Central Station and took the train to Boston. She was met by two of Conrad's friends that he had frantically contacted after failing to find her. Their reunion in Cambridge was a tearful one. Louise enrolled for art classes at the Museum of Fine Arts. Two of her aunts had studied piano at the New England Conservatory of Music; their contact, Mr. Edwin Klahre a faculty member, agreed to take Louise as his student. She studied with him for a year, but decided that art demanded her full attention. Conrad had an upstairs room with a couch that served as Louise's bed, Conrad slept on a cot in a tiny hallway. Their simple meals were prepared on two-burner gas cooker. The following summer, Louise and Conrad spent the summer in Lake George, N.Y. where Conrad had spent several summers. Boating, fishing, hiking and swimming provided a much needed vacation before Conrad returned to join the UT faculty that fall and Louise returned to Boston for two years to complete her art studies.
Despite living on a meagre budget, sharing an apartment with four other girls, buying leftover groceries at the end of the day at an Italian market, Louise was able to attend arts events in the city. Balcony seats at Symphony Hall were 25 cents. Among those she saw perform were pianist, Jan Paderewski, soprano Lillian Nordica, coloratura soprano, Marcella Sembrich, and tenor Enrico Caruso.
One of Louise's more interesting experiences was living and working in the household of Professor Edward Sylvester Morse (1838–1925). Morse, picture at right, was a celebrated zoologist and art collector. Here she describes the experience, "Alice Brooks, manager of the Art School, lived in Salem and was instrumental in getting me a job as nursemaid for the young Morses in Salem. That summer, I went with them to Bradford, VT. where her mother had a large, old home with servants galore. In the fall, I was asked by the elder Prof. Edward Sylvester Morse to live with them. He and his wife were not speaking, and I was the go-between. Prof. Morse was director of the Peabody Academy of Science in Salem and was a lecturer and world-famous collector of old Japanese pottery, the largest part of which is in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
“That fall I was to go home for a visit. Prof. Morse had to go to New York to contact someone at the Metropolitan Museum, so it was arranged that I go along. We took a train to Fall River, then by night boat to New York, stopping at Newport, all aglitter with night life. I went to my cabin early and Prof. Morse met some friends, so I did not see him until morning. After a quick breakfast near the pier, we took a double decker bus to the Museum and got there before it opened. While Prof. Morse transacted his business, the docents took me in charge and showed me the treasures, even some that were not open to the public. What an experience!"
Louise returned to Boston for a year to continue her art studies. The following summer was spent in Chicago helping Conrad edit theosophy writings of Charles W. Leadbeater, Anna Berant and C. Jinarajadasa. While there, Louise illustrated The International Vegetarian Cookbook.
Elliot Holbrook Jr. (in summer school at U. of Chicago) and his sister, Ada, were staying in Conrad's flat. By the end of the summer, Elliot had given Louise his fraternity pin. Following his graduation in 1914 from Cornell, they were married and moved to San Francisco where Elliot wrote a history of the Southern Pacific Railroad and earned a law degree at night. Elliot worked for the Industrial Accident Commission of California until he died in 1932. Louise retuned to Bastrop, TX to care for her parents until their deaths in 1942 and 1944. She returned to California to work and live near two of her three daughters. Louise died in 1987.
Alma Louise Shuddemagen (1888–1976)
Alma married Arnold Charles Kellersberger in 1910, at age 22. They had 5 children:. Arnold worked in sanitation engineering and later owned his own company in Houston.
Emil Gottleib Shuddemagen (Shudde), brother,
Emil served in the Marines and was a farmer. Emile’s son, Gerry Shudde and his wife, Janelle, continued to run the Shudde ranch following the death of Emil. The ranch raises grass fed high quality beef cattle. Gerry provided the following story related to the Shuddamagen family.
"In the late 1880’s, the prairies west of the big towns in Texas were bringing in many new settlers. Vast open areas of waving grass were available to be turned into crop land. My grandfather, not a farmer, wanted to produce honey. He also came, but for the huajillo and other blooming brush plants.
"He and his family traveled by train to build a sturdy house that stands today one mile north of Knippa. He began his beekeeping there on the grass prairies of Knippa. The move was to increase his honey business and raise a healthy family. With the smoking of his pipe, he rarely needed a bee smoker or veil. The honey they made from nature's sustainable way brought sweetness to the world about. The memories of my Opa are dim but large. He transitioned before I started school. Most of my recollections have been written by those who experienced his gentleness and robust laugh, a laugh that started deep in his core then rolled out for people to receive. This always drew a crowd when he went to town. The craftsmanship of their words paints solidness in me today. I can now see his mustached face that did not distract from the sparkle and glint of living in his eyes.
"A section of land was bought on this fertile grass land. Regular payments were made, sometimes in view when neighbors were gathered. Seven years went by with no legal transfer of title. Grandmother worried when the seller responded, “Frau Anna, do not worry your pretty head as I will take care of it". One day a lawyer came, with eviction papers served to this joyous hard—working family. He even asked to be given one of the eight children as his wife could not conceive. The white frame house and hand dug well furnishing fresh water was lost, but not the child.
"The move of 22 miles was undertaken with the support of neighbors. In fact it took two 12 wagon train loads to move the bees and household. This move brought saddened faces. Only Papa’s hardy laugh and positiveness kept one foot in front of the other on this long walk. The Schuddemagen family's new home was a barn with good water from the Sabinal river, while another man sat at the old house with a well of water-—alone.
"As I retrace the route to a riverside ranch bordered by huajillo studded hills, my heritage base is shaken. Why would a strong man, my ancestor, give up so quietly??? Also, adding to my questioning was another story of when he was cheated out of 60 pure angora goats he owned. This prize herd wandered off with the protection of only the guard dog. They ended up over 30 miles away near Batesville. My Opa went to retrieve them and the man offered to buy such quality animals. No cash was exchanged but a note was signed. But no money ever came to the Schuddemagen’s and injustice stepped in again. How could he allow people to walk all over him like that? He and his robust family of 8 children were evicted from their house in the dead of winter. Why, this was abuse—enough to retaliate, maybe even physically, with knot-wounds deep inside ones soul. The wind, grass, trees or bees did not answer me. This was pure fraud and cheating in any ones book. During my younger times, when a wrong was done within my sphere of life at college, I would spend a lot of time dreaming of ways to get even. Plotting would come easy to my mind. Fairness “at all cost" was justiﬁed. And the answer just could not generate in my head of how my Grandfather could let people run over him in a business deal.
"A house was built in 1916 on the breeze side of the Sabinal riverbank. Bees increased rapidly, fish and game were plentiful, and a tennis court was built. Oma collected a library of books and played the piano. Neighbor’s children would come to this isolated ranch to check out books to read and converse about. Seven siblings left to get college degrees from the University of Texas. The sweet toothed youngster, my dad, stayed with the industrious little honey bees. They worked, he worked, and I worked, as do my two sons. The gentle wind finally began to speak to me about my negative questions of my Opa through Cousin Gertrude Franke. She would chuckle as she conveyed how John Schuddemagen's laugh would start deep in his belly then roll up and bubble out to spread all around. It was effortless and joyous and it drew people to his love of living .When he went to town for supplies Oma would usually send my Dad along so they would get home before dark. There was always a crowd around him to soak up his laughter and delay his ten—mile wagon trip home.
"More pieces were also coming together for me of who this gentle man was that worked the bees with only the smoke from his pipe. I have read books and gone to seminars and church to study what made people tick. Then it came to me in Taos, New Mexico, on a relaxing vacation several years ago. My wife so beautiful and I wandered into an art shop on the square.
"I stepped in front of a sculptured blazing orange stone. It was glass smooth, lines of division of shades and color all wrapped in unique shape of ridge lines. It drew me into it so I knew there was something very important here. Separately, Janelle was also captivated by it. It gave us a light-freeing feeling. A sense of wholeness and pure joy. We talked about owning and having it but the cost was WAY out of our reach. I asked the gallery owner the name of The Stone material and he said honeycomb calcite. Janelle and I looked and each other, at this piece of info with a knowing and walked out.
"I did not sleep all night and we talked all around it. Inside me the voices were saying: I am not valuable enough to have something like this; I have never bought anything that does not produce and make money; what would people say about me if we spent this kind of money : Guilt rose up thinking we could give the money to the have-nots of the world. Then the voices said: You are a child of God You are an extension of all that is, Our Source our Creator. You am valuable and worthy.
"Now suddenly a space as big as a gymnasium opened inside of me. The negative thoughts vanished out the gym door and the space was filled with LOVE. The puzzling pieces of John Schuddemagen fell into place. This space inside us is for LOVE. After all, the space between the molecules, between the atoms is 70% of the volume of who we are. He had this open space inside him and was not going to let any thought come in that would push back against the wrong done to him or his family. He chose instead to live the life of joy, fun, family, with the sweetness of honey to pave the way. His strength is in me now to activate more love and more humor and more happiness. He asked in the name of Love to raise his family where they could go out into the world and expand horizons of beauty and sweetness. This was done on the bank of the Sabinal River and not Knippa. I had in my life put into these large areas inside me toxins of self-doubt, complaining, fear, guilt, shame, regret, judgment, and more of these restrictive thoughts that keep out so much love that is available to each of us.
"The move was made and the family grew and seven went off to college and received degrees from which they continued to expand their life and be a light as their father was. John Schuddemagen had done the Creator's work and fulfilled his purpose of positive interactions and the fun of living without distractions of choosing terrible destructive negative thoughts..."
Gerry Shudde, April 2010 and June 2013
Gerry also relayed a story that demonstrates the generosity of John Shuddemagen. Following the illegal seizure of the family farm at Christmas, he went hunting and bagged a deer, cleaned it, and shared the meat with the man that took the property.
Emil chose to stay on the Shuddemagen home place and ranch. He was successful and passed it along to his son Gerald Shudde. In 2016, the ranch celebrated 100 years of operation of the ranch by Emil. From the Shudde Ranch website: "The Shudde Ranch was established in 1897 by my grandparents John and Anna Schuddemagen. They made payments on the 1500-acre ranch from the sales of honey and a few cattle. John was primarily a beekeeper with about 400 colonies of bees on the ranch's huajilla brush. They carved out a pretty good life for themselves and their eight children. The ranch provided most of what they needed. Numerous deer, turkey, squirrel, quail, dove and wild hogs made their home here. Small patches of land were cleared so that some crops like oats and milo grains could be planted. The family also kept a vegetable garden.
The ranch is long and narrow and in the early days the cattle could only get water from the Sabinal River that served as the western boundary for the ranch. The eastern end was almost five miles from water. This was much too far for cattle to roam for grazing. The first stock tank was dug by Emil Shudde, my father, using a mule and an implement called a fresno. This allowed the whole ranch to be used for the purpose of raising cattle. Over the years, more stock tanks have been dug using bulldozers. There have been times on the ranch when most of the herd had to be sold because stock tanks went dry. Now, some of the stock tanks have wells on them to offer a dependable supply of water."
Conrad Louis Benoni Shuddemagen Photo and Document Album
Information from the U. of Texas on T. Shimo Kawabe was very minimal as seen below. My longtime friend, Hisao Toyoda, a UT engineering masters graduate, agreed to help as he lives in Japan. The Shuddemagen family story was that Kawabe was the Kawabe that was aboard the USS Missouri at the signing with MacArthur of Japan's surrender to the United States. Mr. Toyoda research Gerneral Kawabe and determined he had not been in the United States. Apparently the same name led to the confusion. Below is some information Mr. Toyoda uncovered.
1) Guardian Question The UT record below list Kawabe's guardian as C Ushida with an address. Mr. Toyoda wrote, "The only available information “Address of guardian of C. Uchida” turned out to be “Gun-i-bu, 12 Shidan, Kokura” (Surgeon C. Uchida c/o Army Surgeon Dept, Imperial Army 12th Division, Kokura, Fukuoka Pref.) if we accept the advice of Kita-Kyushu City Office. From Feb. 1904, this Division participated in Russo-Japanese War 1904-05 in which they fought a series of land battles with Russia in the northern part of China (Manchuria) including the Battle of Mukden. “Surgeon Uchida” was frequently referred to in the battle field dairy of Surgeon Mizogami, Uchida’s junior colleague. It is well known historical events that the most violent battles both at sea and on land were fought for siege of the Port Aurthur at the tip of Liadong Peninsula which was the stronghold base of Russia’s Far East Squadron. At that time they had been waiting for the Russia’s Baltic Fleet to join for the Japan Sea Naval Battle.
More details: Surgeon Chin-ichi Uchida was listed in Army’s Personnel Directory 1904 as an Army Surgeon (1st class) assigned to field hospitals which he left at the end of Sept., 1904. According to the data found in Diplomatic Record Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he was dispatched to China (Great Qing) as a medical & health advisor of City of Yinghoe, Liaonig Provice between Dec., 1906 and Dec., 1911.
There is a T. Kawabi arriving from Honolulu at San Francisco
There is an S. Kawabi arriving in Honolulu from Yokohama, Japan. His initial city of departure was Kobe, Japan. Birth date is 8 years later than UT records indicate.
Another listing: He is listed as a laborer. Birthdate not too far off.