Acknowledgement: (Marianist Archivist, Brother Earl Leistikow, SM, San Antonio; St. Mary’s University’s Louis J. Blume Library Director Palmer Hall and Professor/Reference Librarian Diane Duesterhoeft were most helpful in the collection of the material used here. Thanks also to Molly White, UT Physics Mathematics Astronomy Librarian.)
Brother Eugene Adam Paulin, (S. M.) was born 23 February, 1882, in Pittsburgh, Allegheny, PA, and died 13 Novembe, 1963, in San Antonio, Bexar County, TX. He is buried in St. Mary’s Cemetery, San Antonio, TX. His parents were Francis Xavier Paulin (March 9, 1844–1910) and Magdalena Duttine (1848–1917). Frances, a barber, was born in Ranspach, Alsace, Haut Rhin, France (The 1900 Census says Germany; another source says Belfort, France.) This region was fought over by France and Germany many times. Brother Eugene speculated that this might be the reason his father’s family immigrated in 1845. Magdalena was born in Bavaria, Germany. They were married in 1866 and had seven children, Olivia (1887–1904), Eugene (1882–1963), William Raymond (1877–1917), George Edward (1872–1919), Francis M. (1870–1925), Anna Katharine (1869–1950) and Ferdinand (1910–1910).
Eugene attended St. Michael’s School in Pittsburg, PA, from 1888–1895. He entered the Society of Mary (Marianists) in 1899. At right, we see his first communion photo. In 1909, he earned a BS from St. Mary's Institute, a Society of Mary school, in Dayton, Ohio. In 1920, the school was renamed Dayton University. He received an MS there in 1910. In the 1910 census, he was teaching at Villa St. Joseph School in St. Ferdinand Township in St. Louis, MO. The school appears to be a Novitiate for boys. He earned an L. S. (Licentiate in Science) from Fribourg (Switzerland) University, a Dominican (O.P., Order of Preachers) college in 1912. He returned to Villa St. Joseph after completing his education in Fribourg and served as a teacher between 1913–1917 and as Head of the School between 1917–1921. During 1922, he was Treasurer of Chimanade College in Clayton, MO. He attended the University of Chicago in 1924. He became Professor of Physics at St. Mary`s in San Antonio, Texas, between 1922–1924 and served as Dean between 1924–1928. Brother Eugene often conducted choirs and accompanied student performs. In 1927, he was instrumental in changing St. Mary’s from a combination high school/college into a single college. (The high school remains today as Central Catholic High School.) At that time, nearly all the faculty there were also Marianist brothers or priests.
In January of 1927, Bro. Paulin took his first course at UT. He traveled every Saturday to Austin. In the summer session, he boarded at a Mrs. Carter’s at 2510 Wichita Street in Austin. During the regular sessions, he continued to teach at St. Mary’s in San Antonio in the first part of the week, his courses at UT scheduled on Thursday, Friday and Saturday. While doing graduate work in physics, he served as an Instructor at the University of Texas during 1927–1928, teaching five courses a week. He was paid $1000 for nine months.
His diary relates that Dr. Arnold Romberg, Assistant Professor of Physics, gave a test the first day of class: after that there were three students remaining in the class. In October, Bro. Paulin was assigned a thesis topic by Professor S. L. Brown. Because of interference with the instruments in the laboratory, the Walling Brothers, local farmers, offered a place five miles from Austin. Equipment was loaded into Dr. Brown’s Nash and transported to a hut in a pasture. Bro. Paulin felt that his fluency in French and German contributed to his success with the project. He was awarded a PhD in physics from the University of Texas in 1928. The dissertation was titled Some Polarization Phenomena of Very Short Radio Waves. The preface of the dissertation states “The experiments herein described were performed partly in the High Frequency Laboratory of the University of Texas and partly on the Walling Farm, some five miles north of Austin on the Cameron Road. My sincerest thanks are due to Dr. S.L. Brown, Chairman of the Physics Department, without whom this work would have been impossible, for his untiring assistance and encouragement throughout the work. Thanks are also due to Mr. Louis Gruber, mechanician, and to the Walling Brothers of Austin, for kindly putting their property at our disposal.” In the ensuing years, Brother Pauling visited with Drs. Brown, Romberg, Kuehne, Eby and Etttlinger and Dean Henry Harper. He considered them friends as well as colleagues. (Diary information courtesy Bro. Earl Leistikow, SM).
From 1929–1949, he was instructor of mathematics and science at Maryhurst Normal School in Kirkwood. MO. He served as inspector of schools, Province of St. Louis of the Society of Mary, 1929–1949. From 1949 until his retirement in 1962, he taught at Honolulu, Hawaii’s St. Louis School (which became in 1955, St. Louis Junior College and in 1957 Chaminade University). His hobbies were music and botany. Cataloging the plants of Hawaii was an interest of his.
Brother Paulin was a Lecturer in the Science Society of San Antonio, and a member of many professional organization: American Physical Society, Sigma Xi, American Association Physics Teachers, and American Association of School Administrators. He was a contributor to: Physical Review and various Catholic school journals. He traveled five times to Europe and a number of times to South America.
He retired to St. Mary’s in San Antonio, where he died in 1963.
(Two Portrait Photos Courtesy of : Marianist Archives, San Antonio. )
Partial List of Eugene Adam Paulin Publications:
Some Polarization Phenomena of Very Short Radio Waves. Eugene A. Paulin. High Frequency Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Phys. Rev. 33, 432 (1929).
Some Catholic Aspects of Science and Science Teaching, Brother Eugene A. Paulin, S.M., The Catholic School Journal, 37 (November, 1937), 316-318.
New Wars: The History of the Brothers of Mary (Marianists) in Hawaii, 1883-1958. Eugene Paulin, SM, PhD and Joseph A. Becker, SM, PhD, Catholic Life Publications and Bruce Press 1959.
The paragraph below is from a report on the Marianist Colleges in Peru. Paulin was visiting Colegio Santa Maria:
“Visits of Superiors
As explained in the previous chapter, the official visitations from the Marianist provincial authorities in the United States occurred every other year, alternating between the Provincial and the Inspector. There was a variant, however, when the Provincial Treasurer was sent to Perú one time during his mandate, as it would be very difficult for him to imagine the concrete circumstances of life in Lima, or Callao, or Chupaca, without having seen them at least once. While Brother Eugene Paulin, S.M., Inspector of the St. Louis Province, who had come to Perú before the mission was accepted, continued his periodic visits, the Provincial, Rev. Sylvester Juergens, S.M., was elected Superior General of the Society of Mary at the General Chapter of 1946, and his successor as Provincial was Rev. Peter Resch, S.M., who had been Novicemaster of the younger Brothers in Perú at that time. He made his first visit to Perú in September of 1947, about a year after assuming office. Thereafter he continued to alternate with Brother Inspector. “
In 1928, Brother Eugene Adam Paulin, shown above, received the first PhD in physics awarded by the University of Texas.
His experiments were carried out on the Walling Farm five miles north of Austin ca. 1927. The cabin shown in one of the pictures below houses all of his instrumentation. Because of reflections, all trees, screens and wires were removed from the area. All pictures in the thesis were taken by Professor J. M. Kuehne. Portions of the dissertation are reproduced below.
This investigation is purely experimental and was conducted to establish the polarization conditions of the electro-magnetic waves which are radiated from a high-frequency oscillator. As far as known, this is the first direct survey of the radiate field in the immediate vicinity of a short-wave generator. For this set of experiments a new type of detector has been used which has shown itself admirably adapted to the problem and, in fact, can be said to play the same role for radio waves as the Nicol prism does for light. By means of it, some interesting interference phenomena have been noted and some additional light has been thrown upon “fading”, “skip distance”, and “beam sending.”
The rapid advance made within the last few years in the field of short radio waves can be attributed in some measure to a "happy mistake" in the Radio Laws of 1912 in assigning these short waves to amateurs. These shorter lengths were left over after government, commercial and professional assignments were made, and by a strange irony of fate, that which was rejected by the builders has become the corner-stone of the edifice. The re-allotment at present contemplated is an admission of the mistake in the previous ruling, and seems to consider these as the delectable portions rather than as the crumbs left over after the feast.
At the inception of radio, very high frequencles were used. In l887, Hertz, in his search for electromagnetic waves as established by Maxwell's purely mathematical considerations, resorted to the rapid oscillations produced by a spark discharge. The success of this simple experiment proves his exceptional intuition, for in this case, failure to detect them could have resulted from the fact that, either these waves did not exist, or he did not have the proper apparatus to establish their existence. The same good fortune has attended the rapid growth of this subject of Physics, so that it can be said to be “crowding years in one brief moon.”
The original method of producing damped oscillations proved rather unsatisfactory. The Righi oscillator was eminently a short-wave transmitter, but the receiving sets left much to be desired. Marconi himself, (1) as early as 1899, experimented with one meter waves. It was not until 1916, with the invention of the pliotron oscillator by W.C. White of the General Electric Co., (2) that undamped Hertzian waves could be produced, and various improvements have been made by Southworth, (3), Goutton and Touly,(4) van der Pol, (5) and Holborn (6). Deserving of special credit in this field of research is C.S. Franklin of the Marconi Co. (7) who did much in the improvement of Radio Communication. The astounding success of the Telefunken Company in the use of waves of from 10 to 100 meters in communicating between Germany on the one hand, and Argentina, Java and Japan, on the other, heightened the enthusiasm in the use of short waves. (8) Important investigations have been conducted by J.C. Schelleng, (9) A. Meissner, (10), O. Cords, (11), Greenleaf Pickard,(12), and G. Marconi.
In his address before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers, Oct. 17, 1927, Marconi enumerated the great advantages of short waves in radio communication as, the comparative freedom from static, the ability to transmit through greater distances even during daytime, and the greater possibility of directing beams.
I. DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS: THE TRANSMITTER
The transmitter used throughout this investigation, is substantially the same as described by J. Tykocinski-Tykociner in his "Investigation of Antennae by Means of Models".(13).
The diagram (Fig 1) shows the principle of this high-frequency oscillator. A loop is divided symmetrically into two parts, one above and one below the bakelite panel. The two parts of the loop are connected by means of two condensers. One of the condensers, Co, is variable, having a capacity range of from 3 to 15 micro-micro-farads. It consists of two semi-circular plates about 5 cm in diameter, separated by a variable air-space. The other condenser, Cv, is formed by the plate and the grid of the vacuum tube V, which is a Radiotron, Model UX-852, having a capacity of about 10 micro-micro farads. This tube was designed by the Radio Corporation of America for use as an oscillator or power amplifier, particularly adapted to wave-lengths under 100 meters. In order to facilitate its use under these conditions, the inter-electrode capacities have been made low and the insulation between electrodes high, by mounting each electrode on a separate support. The normal voltage for the filament is 10 and for the plate 2000, although in the following experiments only 720 volts were used. Choke coils a, b, and d are inserted in the leads connecting the plate circuit and the filament circuit with their batteries, for the purpose of suppressing oscillations in these leads.
A comparatively large condenser C2 (.002 microfarads) is inserted in the middle position of the loop to prevent a direct connection of the plate with the filament should Co break down. The by-pass condenser C1 (.5 microfarads) prevents the flow of high-frequency current through the filament. The thermo-ammeter A-t is inserted in a convenient place to indicate the maximum effective current in the loop. The zero potential leads z1, z2, connecting two symmetrical nodal points n1, n2, on the loop, contain the grid leak r of about 25,000 ohms on the grid side and a choking coil a on the plate side.
By means of an insulated exploring wire, the nodal points n1 and n2 , can be easily found, and the points where the zero potential leads z1 and z2, must be attached are thus determined. The amplitude of oscillation is rapidly decreased by shifting these leads in the direction toward the condenser Co or Cv. Proper selection of the points for connecting the leads z1 and z2, and proper adjustment of the condenser Co are therefore essential to the efficient production of oscillations.
Under these operating conditions, frequencies of from 40 to 60 millions per second are obtained, corresponding to wave-lengths of from 7.5 to 5 meters. The complete transmitter is shown in Fig 2, at right, which shows that the loop can be set in any angular position.
The detector (14) used in this series of experiments, furnished an accurate and reliable method for the survey of the field intensity and the polarization conditions in the immediate vicinity of a short-wave oscillator. As actually used, its range was from 5 to 7.5 meters, but by slight adjustments, its range can be changed so as to cover somewhat shorter and considerably longer waves. For the longer waves the tuned antenna would become cumbersome and this is the only feature tending to limit its adaptability to longer waves. It is an analyzer in the strict sense of the word, similar to a Nicol prism as used in Optics.
Fig 3 shows a diagram of the connections of the receiving system. The D.C. meter has a range of 25 microamperes and the connections are of the Moullin type. The vacuum tube is a UX 199, and the filament current is furnished by a 4.5 volt dry battery, in series with a constant resistance R1, and a variable resistance R2. R is a coil of manganin wire of 20 ohms resistance which also acts as a choke coil. R2 is a variable resistance and by means of it the zero, and consequently the sensibility of the meter can be regulated. A condenser C2 is shunted across the filament to prevent oscillations in its circuit.
The plate has no separate battery but depends upon the same source as the filament. The grid is maintained at the same potential as the upper part of the step-disk condenser by means of the short loop L.
The condenser Cs is of special design due to J. Tykocinski-Tykociner and is described in detail in Bulletin 147 of the Engineering Department of the University of Illinois. There are two difficulties encountered in designing detectors for very short waves. The first is the influence of the observer and conductors near the condenser. The step-disk condenser minimizes the effect of surroundings due to the fact that its stray field is small and remains small throughout its range. In the usual type of interleaving condenser the intensity of the stray field varies with the relative position of the plates and is largest when the position of the plates corresponds to minimum capacity. The second difficulty is due to the necessity of very fine adjustment. A vernier condenser is out of the question in this case, since the stray field would be unduly increased by the addition of an extra plate.
The condenser which was finally evolved from these considerations consists of a pair of circular aluminum disks. Both inner surfaces of the disk facing each other are divided into two semi-circular parallel parts, each of them on a somewhat different level. To shield the vacuum-tube voltmeter which was used to detect resonance, its entire circuit was enclosed in a brass cylinder connected to the upper disk, thus forming an integral part of the condenser. The lower member b can be rotated by means of the Iong wooden handle H and in this manner small variations of capacity can be produced by comparatively large angular displacements of the rotating disk. A sheet of bakelite is placed at the bottom of the cylinder to insulate the instruments from the condenser Cs. The photograph (Fig 4) shows the assembled instrument.
The antenna, which is a rod tuned to the length of the wave being investigated, is fastened at its end to a bar which makes contact with the lower plate of the step-disk condenser. The entire apparatus is pivoted at D, the antenna itself can be rotated in a vertical plane about its point of attachment, so that there is practically a universal joint for the antenna, permitting a survey in any plane. Fig 5 shows diagrammatically the electrical connections in the detector, the measuring instruments being encased in one plate of the condenser. The assembled detector is illustrated in Fig 6, below, showing the protractor for measuring the angle of elevation and the counterweight and guy ropes for manipulating the antenna. It likewise shows the method of reading the scale from its reflection in a mirror, and the position of the observer, crouching so as to reduce the body effect to a minimum.
(l) Marconi, G. (Proc. Inst. Rad. Eng. 16, 40, Jan. 1928.)
(2) White, W.C. Gen. Elec. Review, 19, 771, 1916.
(3) Radio Review, 1, 576, 1920.
(4) Revue Gen. de l'Electricité, 5,11, 415.
(5) Phil. Mag., 39, 90, 1919.
(6) Zeitsehrift für Physik, 6, 328, 1921.
(7) Jahrbueh der Drahtlosen Telegraphie & Telephonie, 21, 58, 1923.
(8) Ibid, 28, 41, 1926.
(9) Bell Laboratories Record, June 1927.
(10) Jahrbueh der Drahtlosen Telegraphie & Telephonie, 31, 1, 1928.
(11) Ibid, 18, 332, 1921.
(12) Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., 14, 205, 1926.
(13) U. of Ill., Bulletin 147, Eng. Exp. Station, 1925.
(14) The detector is an original design due to Dr. S. L. Brown, and constructed by Mr. Louis Gruber of the Department of Physics, University of Texas.
Eugene Adam Paulin Photo and Document Album