University of Texas
Paul McKillop Erlandson
October 27, 1920–September 28, 2000

 

 

Paul McKillop Erlandson
Paul McKillop Erlandson



Pictures above courtesy of AIP Emilio Segré Visual Archives,
(The valuable contributions of Scott Erlandson, son of Paul Erlandson, are greatly appreciated.)

 

Introduction:
Paul Erlandson’s career demonstrates the versatility of a physics education. Armed with a brilliant mind, a Midwestern work ethic, an insatiable curiosity, and recognized organizational and administrative skills, he made major contributions across a spectrum of physics and engineering. The ease with which he moved between physics areas and his ability to use his physics to impact technology in a major way is truly impressive. We see his technology prescience and savvy in his choice of a dissertation topic, “information storage.” Remember, this was 1950, and here he was addressing many of the issues that would explode a generation later. With typical physicist’s understatement, he entitled his work, Photoelectronic Voltage Generation. The breadth of knowledge revealed in this dissertation would suggest a person destined for a distinguished career. As the material below demonstrates, that conclusion would have been, “spot on.”

Paul McKillop Erlandson's Parents

Paul Erlandson was born in Washington, DC, on October 27, 1920 to Ray Sanford (1893–1991) and Margery Ann McKillop Erlandson (1894–1981). Ray’s parents were born in Norway and Margery’s parents were from Canada. While doing graduate work Ray served as secretary for an Educational Association in DC. He and Margery were lodgers in a large house in Columbia Heights in 1920. Ray earned a master’s from George Washington University in 1922. His thesis was entitled, Tenure. Margery worked as a music teacher. Ray next served as Vice President of the Rudolph Wurlitzer Co. in Cincinnati before accepting a position in San Antonio as Vice President and General manager of San Antonio Music Co. and Mission School of Music. Paul’s brother Ray worked as a salesman in the company. Ray became chair of Business Administration at Trinity University in San Antonio, TX. He wrote a book, Starting and managing a small retail music store, (The Starting and Managing series).

The University of Wisconsin at River Falls honored Paul’s father with a Distinguished Alumni Award in 1969. Here is that award:

1969 - Ray S. Erlandson

When Ray S. Erlandson came to River Falls in the summer of 1912 to sell aluminum cookware door to door, he made the mistake of selling some to the wife of President James W. Crabtree. The president then convinced him that he should give up his salesman’s job and become a student at the Normal School. Two years later, he graduated and became a teacher at Chippewa Falls and River Falls. During World War I, he served as a second lieutenant in the Field Artillery. While serving as an instructor in the artillery, he wrote the president to tell him that he had "not received any information from old Normal as to what activity she is in, nor do I know how many of the boys are in the service. I wish you would delegate someone to enlighten me on some of these points as I am as interested in old R.F.N.S. today as at any time before." When peace finally came, he said, "The United States will continue to call for the ablest. River Falls will do her part."

After the war, he became first assistant secretary and business manager of the National Education Association (then headed by former President Crabtree). From 1925 to 1953, he was director of broadcasting for Majestic Radio, manager for automobile sales for Zenith Radio Corporation, vice president of the Wurlitzer Company, and educational director for Grigsby-Grunow Company.

In 1953, he became chair of the Department of Business Administration at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas, and a year late,r he took the position of president of the Children’s Fund. In the years when he was involved with radio, he originated the American School of the Air, the first national radio program. His record indicated that the nation had called "for the ablest," and that River Falls had done "her part" in supplying talent, as he had written 41 years before.”

It is clear from Paul’s accomplishments that he inherited much from his hardworking and talented father.

Paul M. Erlandson’s Schooling

Paul, along with his siblings Ray Jr. and William D, attended elementary school in Downers Grove, IL where his father was education director at a radio station. Paul graduated from Wyoming High School, Wyoming, Ohio in 1937.


Paul entered MIT at the age of 16. While there, he participated in debating. He is shown front row, 3rd from left, in picture below. He became president of the society.

 

On May 29, 1939, he received an amateur radio station license; his call letters were “W 1 M C E”. The base station location was MIT dormitories. He earned a BS degree in 1941. Karl Taylor Compton, whose signature appears as president on his diploma, was a prominent American physicist and president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1930 to 1948.

 

He married Elizabeth Bradford Hague in 1941. Their children were Ann Bradford, Paul McKillop, Jay Lawrence, David Sanford and Richard Scott.

His employment included Test Design Engineer at Crosby Radio Corp., Cincinnati, OH, 1937–1939; Cost Control Engineer, RCA Corp., Camden, NJ, 1941–1942; Electrical Design Project Engineer, Bureau of Ships, Navy Dept., Washington, DC, 1942–1946. He was appointed an ensign in the US Naval Reserve in May of 1942. He was put on active service in July of 1942, attending indoctrination in Naval Training School, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH. He separated from the service in December 1945.

Here is a photo from the Bureau of Ships Yearbook 1945. Shown is an Electronics Group at the Bureau. Lt. Erlandson is fourth from left on back row.


Erlandson attended UT from March 1946 to June 1950. He earned master’s in January 1949, with a thesis entitled, Photo-Electronic Synthesis of Musical Tones. Amazingly, he completed his PhD in 1950, the title was, Photo-electronic Voltage Generation. His PhD supervisor was Professor Robert B. Watson. The dissertation addressed the storage of information, a very advanced topic for this time. He was exceptionally versed in electronics. The work was done while employed by the Defense Research Laboratory. Both Watson and Claude Horton, in their roles as Research Scientists at DRL, signed off on the research, approving Erlandson’s request to Director C. P. Boner, to present the work as a dissertation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1952, Paul Erlandson served first as Associate Director of the Southwest Research Institute, later becoming chairman of the Southwest Research Institute’s Physics Department and Assistant Vice President (appointed 1955). The institute was in San Antonio, TX. He left in 1955 to join the Department of Physics, Central Research and Engineering Division of the Continental Can Company in Chicago. There he was a major contributor to the production and sealing of food containers. A description of his responsibilities was included in a press release, “In his new position, Dr. Erlandson will head the company’s experimental work on the application of the principles of physics to the high speed automatic equipment used in manufacturing and closing metal paper, plastic and composite containers and closures, as well as to its future ionizing radiation sterilization program.” Seventy-five professional scientists and 25 administrative personnel were involved. Thirty-four of his patents are described at the end of this article. He served as General Manager of Corporate R&D. Interestingly, he was granted an “L Clearance” from the Atomic Energy Commission shortly after coming to the Continental Can Company.

In 1959, Erlandson became Director of Research at Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp. in Ridgefield, CT. It was a difficult decision for him to leave Continental Can as he wrote in May in a private letter to General Lucius D. Clay, CEO at the time. “I should like to express my deepest appreciation to you for your kind consideration during our recent discussions. My decision to resign from Continental was made only after having given the most earnest attention to your words, and with the highest respect for your judgement. Three factors finally predominated in the evaluation of the elements of a difficult decision. 1. Had I not accepted the challenge of taking on this major responsibility now, I should unavoidably have lost a measure of self-respect, and perhaps of your esteem. 2. From the professional standpoint, it is most desirable to attain the research directorship of a major corporation before reaching the age of 40. 3. Since graduating from MIT in 1941, I have spent four years on active duty in the Navy and over nine years as a staff member of not-for-profit research institutions. With five children to educate, I must now consider ever possible financial advantage—short term as well as long term.”

In 1960, an entry in Industrial Research Laboratories in US appeared:
“Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp., P. O. Box 2175, Houston, TX
President; W. J. Gillingham,
Laboratory: P. O. Box 307, Ridgefield, Conn.
Research staff: Paul M. Erlandson, Director of Research; 3 chemists; engineers: 8 electrical, 5 mechanical; 2 geologist, 3 mathematicians, 16 physicists, 32 auxiliaries.

Research on: Geophysical methods and apparatus for logging of strata traversed by bore holes: analysis and interpretation of data: data processing, nuclear physics, electromagnetic theory, physical chemistry, sonics.”

Apparently Continental Can recognized the importance of Erlandson to their corporation and lured him back in 1961 as Director of Engineering Research in the Metal R&D Division. In 1967, he was appointed Director of Corporate Research, with responsibility for long range research in packaging materials, physical sciences, and manufacturing systems. In 1972, he was named General Manager of Corporate Research and Development.

 

The Eli Whitney award is presented by the Connecticut Intellectual Property Law Association to an outstanding individual in recognition of significant contribution to law or science. Paul M. Erlandson won the award in 1984. The list of prior recipients demonstrates the high regard he garnered among industrial scientists and engineers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Obituary for Elizabeth “Betsy” Bradford Hague Erlandson

Elizabeth Bradford Erlandson, RN, of Waterford, formerly of Stamford, died on April 1, 2013, at Lawrence & Memorial Hospital. She was born on May 5, 1921, in Menomonie, WI, the daughter of Clifford Wilson Hague and Helen Lawrence Summers Hague. She was predeceased by her husband of 59 years, Paul M. Erlandson Sr.

Affectionately called "Nana" by grandchildren and great grandchildren, Betsy showed a dedication to others and an infectious zeal for life. She loved the company of her countless friends and acquaintances. She enjoyed engaging anyone in a lively conversation on any topic. Betsy attended Wheelock College in Boston, MA, and returned to earn her nursing degree from Saint Xavier University in the Chicago area.
Her boundless energy allowed her to work for many years as a teacher, a homemaker, and a registered nurse, serving in the Stamford Hospital pediatric ward. She volunteered in the Stamford soup kitchen, church thrift shop, and several nursing homes, including Bayview in Waterford tending to her 108 year old mother. She also spent time helping immigrants learn English.
Betsy's devotion to her family provided grandchildren with many fond memories of summers at "Camp Nana," swimming, playing and eating their favorite meals during vacations. Betsy's hobbies included quilting, knitting, bird watching, gardening and celebrating any family event, especially birthdays. She was also an avid reader and member of the Darien quilters club for many years and created many family treasures.

Mrs. Erlandson is survived by her children, Ann Bradford Erlandson of Santa Fe, NM; Paul McKillop Erlandson, Jr. of Vero Beach, FL; Jay Lawrence Erlandson of Winter Park, CO; David Sanford Erlandson of Beaverton, OR; and Scott Erlandson of Waterville, VT and her brother, David Hague; seven grandchildren and eight great grandchildren

 

 

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Erlandson Photos and Documents

Paul Erlandson Ham Radio Call Letters

Paul Erlandson Ham Radio Call Letters

Radio Contact

New Zealand Radio Contact

Puerto Rico Radio Contack

Canal Zone Radio Contact

San Diego Radio Contact

Barbados Radio Contact

Nova Scotia Radio Contact

Paul Erlandson got his ham radio operator license while a teenager. The radio cards were accumulated while in Austin. Dennis Murphy, ham radio operator in Round Rock, kindly evaluated these cards. He was impressed with this Galapagos Islands card, W6VDA. He said this would have been rare at the time, especially AM phone communication. He also pointed out the low power employed with transmitters, order of 30 watts..

Mexico City Radio Contact

Back of Radio City Radio Contact

American Campaign Medal

Herman, Elizabeth with children
Anna, Herman, John, Jane, Peter, Eizabeth, Margaret

Ray Erlandson, Paul's father

Betsy, Paul and Ray Erlandson

Paul Erlandson at right

Victory Medal

Commendation from Navy
Paul Erlandson playing the cornet. He attended the National High School Orchestra and Band Camp in Interlochen, MI in the summer of 1930. Below, is a program from a concert at Interlochen August 22, 1930. It contains a wonderful collection of autographs of prominent musicians. As Paul was only 10 years old, he would likely be part of group numbers. Paul’s father Ray Erlandson was on the Executive Board, serving as broadcasting manager. Comments on the musical autographs has kindly be provided by Robert Winter, UCLA Distinguished Professor of Music.
Some information on the people who signed Paul's program is given below.

 

Joseph E. Maddy. Signature at bottom of program. He was born in Wellington, Kansas where both of his parents were teachers. He attended Wichita College of Music in Wichita, Kansas where he studied violin and later joined the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. He was also the first music supervisor of instrumental music in America in 1918 in Rochester, New York. After a short time in Rochester, he was encouraged by Will Earhart to take a job at Morton High School in Richmond, Indiana to revive the outstanding school and community music program Earhart had developed there some years earlier. He remained in Richmond for four years.

In 1924, Maddy was invited to Ann Arbor to be the supervisor of music in public schools and the music department head for the University of Michigan, where he developed one of the few conducting courses in the country. and also conducted the Michigan All State High School Orchestra. While teaching in 1925, Maddy organized the first National High School Orchestra to play for the Music Supervisors National Conference (MSNC) in Detroit in 1926. In 1927, Maddy was invited to bring the National High School Orchestra of over 250 high school musicians from 39 states, to the MSNC in Dallas that year.

While in Ann Arbor, Maddy also pursued other approaches to music education by developing teaching materials in collaboration with Thaddeus P. Giddings for a radio teaching program. The radio program taught band and orchestra instrumentation with instruction books distributed by NBC. By 1936, their radio program aired five times per week, and was believed to have reached 225,000 student listeners. It was sustained until 1940, and employed professional musicians to help with technique demonstrations.

In 1928, Maddy formed the National High School Orchestra and Band Camp, incorporated as the National High School Orchestra Camp on July 6, 1927. The camp exists today as the Interlochen Center for the Arts, and has spawned several complementary entities including Interlochen Arts Academy, Interlochen College of the Creative Arts and Interlochen Public Radio in Interlochen, Michigan. From Wikipedia.

At right, L to R, Joseph Maddy, John Philips Sousa and A. A. Harding. Photo take at Interlochen, summer of 1930, while Paul Erlandson was attending.

Below is the musical autograph of Maddy. He included two bars of “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee”. Robert Winter wrote, “It was common in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries to give incipits of patriotic songs—an outgrowth of the European/American promotion of the "nation-state" in which American power was (after 1892) quietly pointed up by such an incipit.”

Willis Pennington. Signature at bottom of program. In 1928, by arrangement with Willis Pennington, Joseph E. Maddy and Thaddeus P. Giddings established the National High School Orchestra Camp. It grew rapidly in scope, size, and reputation, becoming the National Music Camp in 1931, and affiliating with the University of Michigan in 1942. Interlochen Arts Academy was chartered in 1960 to provide year-round training in the creative arts. Pennington made available the land in return for the students staying in the Pennington Hotel. He served the camp in many roles, manager, board member and secretary-treasurer of the camp.

Austin A. Harding, Signature at top left. Director of University of Illinois Bands. Interlochen faculty member.

 

Musical autograph of Harding shown at right. Robert Winter writes, “From about 1790 to 1950 it was common (though by no means mandatory—especially by 1930) for both performers and composers to include a small musical inscription. About half the time these are little nothings that are unrelated to any actual composition. This is almost certainly the case with the 3-note inscription by A.R. Harding.”

 

Orien E. Dalley, Signature at top right. Assistant Professor of Music at University of Wisconsin. Interlochen faculty member.

John Minnema, Signature at top right. Concert Manager, Interlochen Executive Staff.

William Cameron, Signature at top right. Harp teacher

Percy J. Burningham, Signature at top right. Instructor high school Vocal Music. Minneapolis Public Schools. Interlochen faculty member.

Arthur L. Williams, Signature at top right. Librarian. Assistant Professor of Public School Music, Oberlin College. Interlochen faculty member. Arthur Lyman Williams was born in Oberlin, Ohio, on April 21, 1902 to Lyman Beecher Williams, a carpenter and builder, and Henrietta Wilhelmina (Rick) Williams. He had four brothers, Cranston, Joel (1932), Paul, and Vernon, and a half sister from his father's previous marriage, Fannie Edwards Eichenlaub 19'08). Williams attended Oberlin public schools, and in 1925 he received an AB from Oberlin College and the S. Mus. B. from the Conservatory. While at student at Oberlin, Williams was a member of several organizations, including the Men's Glee Club, the College Band, and the Conservatory Orchestra, and he directed several of the groups. He studied at Columbia University in 1927, and in 1932–1933 he attended the Royal College of Music in London. He received his AM from Western Reserve University in 1943.
Williams specialized in school music, and he remained a music teacher for his entire career. His first teaching positions were in the public schools in Howell and Grand Rapids, Michigan, from 1925 to 1928. In 1928, he became Assistant Professor of Wind Instruments at Oberlin College, and he remained with the college until his retirement in 1968. Williams also taught as a professor of music education. As a professor, Williams was described as meticulous and demanding but always willing to help any student in need of assistance. He was concerned with the quality of education at Oberlin, and he was active in its preservation. In a 1963 exchange with the newly-chosen Dean of the Conservatory of Music, Norman Lloyd, Williams expressed concern that Lloyd was not supportive of music education in public schools, which would be detrimental to the Music Education program at Oberlin. From 1928 to 1957, he was Director of Bands at Oberlin, as well as conductor of others ensembles such as the Brass Choir and Symphonic Band. Williams founded the Ohio Intercollegiate Band Festival, billed as the first of its kind anywhere, in 1929. Nearly every summer was spent teaching at music camps or summer sessions, most notably at the National Music Camp in Interlochen, Michigan.

Matthew H. Shoemaker, Signature at top right. Manager Camp Store. Conductor of Hastings Civic Symphony Orchestra, 1952–1970. He also was the music director at Marshall High School in Hastings, Nebraska. Later moved to Japan. Matthew H. Shoemaker was inducted into the Nebraska Music Educators Association Hall of Fame in 1979. He taught in the Public Schools of Friend, NE 1925–1927, and the Hastings Public Schools 1927–1969. He taught music in the Doniphan and Guide Rock Public Schools 1969–1970, the Canadian Academy in Kobe, Japan in 1970–1974, Kodaikanal School, Dondaikanal, India in 1974–1975 and the Redlands, California Public Schools in 1977–1978. He served as President-Elect, President, 1941–1944, and Second Vice-President of Nebraska Music Educators Association.

 

Dr. George C. Wilson, Signature at right side. Assistant Librarian. Dr. George C. Wilson (1908–2001) was known as a music educator and conductor. He graduated from the University of Illinois and earned a masters degree from Columbia University. Dr. Wilson began his career as a conductor at Kansas State Teachers College and went on to conduct the band and orchestra at University of Arizona. He spent ten years as the director of bands at the University of Missouri, from 1946 until 1956. Elected to the American Bandmasters Association (ABA) in 1948, he was elected president in 1965 and was later named as an honorary life member in 1998. Dr. Wilson helped organize the 1966 conference of the International Society for Music Education, the first to be held in the United States, at Interlochen, Michigan.

Dr. Wilson dedicated much of his life to the National Music Camp, later known as the Interlochen Arts Camp. In 1950, he was elected vice-president and director of the National Music Camp at Interlochen, Michigan and, starting in 1958, served as a full-time faculty member at the National Arts Academy. He later served as interim president from 1970 to 1971 of the Interlochen Center for the Arts. In 1973, he assisted Imelda Marcos with the development and planning of the Philippine Center of the Arts, which would later open in 1976. George Wilson died on February 24, 2001 in St. Louis, Missouri.

Ray Dvorak. Signature at lower middle. Assistant Director of University of Illinois Bands. Interlochen faculty member. Raymond F. Dvorak was born in Algonquin, Illinois on March 31, 1900.? He attended the University of Illinois between 1918 and 1934, earning a BS in Commerce in 1922 and a BM in Piano 1926. From 1922 to 1926, Dvorak served as director of music at the Urbana High School, and from 1926 to 1934 he was assistant director of the University of Illinois bands and director of Glee Clubs. In 1934, he was named director of the University of Wisconsin bands, a position that he held for over 30 years until 1968. In addition to his numerous articles, Dvorak wrote two books, The Band on Parade (1937) and The Art of Flag Swinging (1939). Dvorak was elected to the ABA in 1933 and served as President in 1959. He was made an honorary Life Member in 1980. Dvorak continued to appear frequently as a guest conductor until his death in 1982. For a third of a century, not only was the Wisconsin band program led to new heights of accomplishment and exceptional recognition, but also the university, the city of Madison, the state and even the nation were to feel the vibrations of this band director, teacher, composer/arranger, author, song leader, humorist, and humanitarian.

Under Ray Dvorak, the bands, both marching and concert, paid tributes to national heroes, university dignitaries, sports figures, and always found the proper music to celebrate significant historical events. These include celebrations of the 50th and 75th anniversaries of the Wisconsin band program in 1935 and 1960.

The last half of the 1930s saw the establishment of the marching band. Under the direction of Ray Dvorak, the marching band became nationally renowned for the many innovations brought to the halftime presentation. According to the University of Wisconsin News Service, “Professor Raymond R. Dvorak has developed many ‘firsts’ in the field of band pageantry at athletic contests, especially football games. He developed the singing band, mass singing, formations without signals, and animated formations. He originated the airplane band formation with sound effects; the formation of the score of the game immediately after the game; flank and oblique movements in formations; and the singing of ‘salute’ songs to the competitors.”

The musical autograph of Dvorak is shown at right. The reference to “Tween lakes so fain!”, of course, refers to the location of the Interlochen Camp between Green Lake and Duck Lake. Robert Winter writes, “Dvorak’s is either the incipit of an art song or—more likely—a quick homage to Interlochen’s location.”

 

 

 

 

 

Thaddeus P. Giddings. Signature at left near top. Vice-President of National High School Orchestra and Band Camp. Supervisor of Instruction Supervisor of Music, Minneapolis Public Schools. Thaddeus Philander Woodbury Giddings was born February 19, 1869, Anoka,
Minnesota, to A. W. and Mary E. (Simons) Giddings. He spent his childhood in Iowa. He never married.

T. P. Giddings spent his career as a supervisor of public school music, principally with the Minneapolis schools. He was known for the innovations he brought to public school music programs including sight reading of music for all children and in-school piano classes. He cofounded the famous National Music Camp at Interlochen, Michigan.

Giddings attended Anoka, Minnesota, public schools and graduated from high school in 1885. He studied at the University of Minnesota for one year. On being hired to teach music in Anoka, he took a one-hour lesson in public school music in Minneapolis. He taught in Anoka (1886–1889) and Anoka County (1889–1891). During this time he studied at the American Institute at Normal Methods at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, and in Highland Park, Illinois. Giddings went to Moline. Illinois, for three years (1891–1894) as supervisor of music. His high school students there sang the oratorio Creation, one of the first performances of an oratorio by a high school in the country. He supervised music in the schools of Oak Park, Illinois from 1894 to l9l0.

Giddings was supervisor of music in Minneapolis public schools from 1910 until his retirement in 1942. When visiting classes, he heard the children sing almost the entire time, spending little time telling about music but rather emphasizing participation. He taught public school music at the University of Minnesota from 1915 to 1928 and music education at MacPhail College of Music in Minneapolis from 1923 to 1942.

In 1907, Giddings was a founder, along with Philip Hayden (q.v.), of the Music Supervisors (later, Educators) National Conference (MENC) in Keokuk, Iowa. He served as chairman of its executive committee. Giddings persuaded Joseph E. Maddy (BDAE) to become a music teacher and with him founded the Interlochen, Michigan. National Music Camp in 1928. Giddings was vice president of the camp. He died in Clermont, Florida, March 4, 1954.

Henri Leon Le Roy, Signature at lower left. Solo Carinetist, Cleveland Symphony Orchestra, Interlochen faculty member. Henri LeRoy was born in Armentières in the north of France just on the Belgian boarder in 1874. Henri LeRoy was a member of the Garde rRpublicaine Band in Paris in about 1900. Henri LeRoy was principal clarinet of the New York Philharmonic succeeding Alexander Selmer for four seasons, 1911–1914. While playing in the Philharmonic, Henri LeRoy was one of the founders of the Philharmonic Ensemble, a wind quintet with violin consisting of Henri Leroy clarinet, Xavier Reiter horn, August Mesnard bassoon, Anton Fayer flute, and joined by Leopold Kramer, then Concertmaster of the New York Philharmonic. He resigned his position to return to France to fight against the Germans. Henri was Principal clarinet in the New York National Symphony 1918–1921 which then merged with the New York Philharmonic in 1921. Henri LeRoy became a US citizen in 1923. He was appointed principal clarinet of the Cleveland Orchestra by Nikolai Sokoloff for one season, 1929–1930. LeRoy then went on to play in concerts and radio in the early 1930s. Henri LeRoy died later than 1932.

Percy Grainger, Signature at middle left. Concert Pianist (8 July 1882 – 20 February 1961). Grainger was an Australian-born composer, arranger and pianist. In the course of a long and innovative career he played a prominent role in the revival of interest in British folk music in the early years of the 20th century. He also made many adaptations of other composers' works. Although much of his work was experimental and unusual, the piece with which he is most generally associated is his piano arrangement of the folk-dance tune "Country Gardens". We see a photograph of him at right in 1922.

Grainger left Australia at the age of 13 to attend the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt. Between 1901 and 1914 he was based in London, where he established himself first as a society pianist and later as a concert performer, composer and collector of original folk melodies. As his reputation grew he met many of the significant figures in European music, forming important friendships with Frederick Delius and Edvard Grieg. He became a champion of Nordic music and culture, his enthusiasm for which he often expressed in private letters.

In 1914, Grainger moved to the United States, where he lived for the rest of his life, though he travelled widely in Europe and in Australia. He served briefly as a bandsman in the United States Army during 1917–18, and took American citizenship in 1918. After his mother's suicide in 1922, he became increasingly involved in educational work. He also experimented with music machines that he hoped would supersede human interpretation. In the 1930s, he set up the Grainger Museum in Melbourne, his birthplace, as a monument to his life and works and as a future research archive. As he grew older, he continued to give concerts and to revise and rearrange his own compositions, while writing little new music. After the Second World War, ill health reduced his levels of activity, and he considered his career a failure. He gave his last concert in 1960, less than a year before his death.

Grainger’s musical autograph is shown at left. Robert Winter writes, “The Grainger incipit is the first measure (with two eighth-note upbeat and transposed up an octave) of his solo piano composition, "Spoon River," composed in 1919 and published in 1922. The piece is part of "American Folk-Music Settings." Grainger was always eager to point up his American loyalties, having already served as a US Army bandsman in World War One.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book by Paul Erlandson

The Marketing of Frequency Modulation Receivers in Massachusetts

Paul M. Erlandson

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of General Engineering, 1941 - 136 pages


1960 Entry in Industrial Research Laboratories in UT.
“Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp. P. O. Box 2175, Houston, TX
President; W. J. Gillingham,
Laboratory: P. O. Box 307, Ridgefield, Conn.
Research staff: Paul M. Erlandson, Director of Research; 3 chemists; engineers: 8 electrical, 5 mechanical; 2 geologist, 3 mathematicians, 16 physicists, 32 auxiliaries.

Research on: Geophysical methods and apparatus for logging of strata traversed by bore holes: analysis and interpretation of data: data processing, nuclear physics, electromagnetic theory, physical chemistry, sonics.”

 


Patents Received by Paul Erlandson and Co-inventors

Kerwin Joseph E. Erlandson Paul M: Convenience opening of containers for liquid products. The Continental Group June 1977: US 4029033 (38 worldwide citation)
An easy opening closure for pressurized fluids and a method of making the same. The container has an end panel with multiple small openings and a tape strip of plastic or plastic coated metal foil is secured to the panel by a heat activated adhesive in a way by which the plastic is extruded into the openings to form hollow bosses each defined by a peripheral annulus or torus formed into the respective opening and at least partially bonded to an uncoated raw edge of the opening, the boss having a disk-like center portion and the surrounding annulus providing a thick cross-section resisting doming of the areas of the tape covering the openings and inhibiting the development of incipient cracks and their propagation resulting in premature peeling of the cohesive bond. The areas of adherence of the adhesive to the external side of the panel are selectively controlled to obtain a desired, preferably uniform, peel resistance to the tape so that upon the tape being pulled by the user to separate it from the container during opening, the user will continue to pull to fully open the pour opening and vent. The invention also provides a permanent securement of the tail end of the strip to the end panel to prevent removal of the strip.

2
Erlandson Paul M: Method of fabricating tubular bodies. Continental Can June 1976: US 3960624 (19 worldwide citation)
This disclosure relates to a method of fabricating tubular bodies having at least one closed end by advancing material along a predetermined path of travel in a predetermined direction, forming the material into a tube during its advancement, placing a closure in-line with the advancement of the tube, and utilizing the motion of the advancing tube to assemble the latter with the closure.

3
Erlandson Paul M: Sonic multistage pump. Continental Can June 1971: US 3586461 (8 worldwide citation)
An electrohydraulic multistage pump is composed of a series of stages, each stage being connected to the next stage so that when an electric pulse is applied in a stage, fluid is displaced into a succeeding stage and at this time, an electric spark passes across the arc gap to augment the pressure in the succeeding stage. The stages are arced at proper times so that the arc occurs when each stage is under pressure from the sonic wave actuated or caused by the preceding stage. A considerable pressure is developed at the output by the series of electrical pulses operating to raise the pressure in successive stages.

4
Erlandson Paul M: Electrohydraulic plus fuel detonation explosive forming. Continental Can July 1973: US 3742746 (8 worldwide citation)
This apparatus provides improved forming with reduced electrode wear by exploding a mixture above a liquid. The liquid rests against a membrane stretched across the lower part of the chamber. When the mixture explodes pressure is exerted through the membrane to form a workpiece against a die.

5
Erlandson Paul M, Roth Donald J, Hekal Ihab M, Walter John: Method of forming a can. Continental Group December 1980: EP0020099 (7 worldwide citation)
A container which is formed of two cup-shaped members (12, 14), one member (12) being a bottom and the other member (14) being a top. The two members have end walls which are configurated to resist deformation under high internal pressures as may occur in beverage containers. The members have cylindrical bodies (20, 28) and an end portion (34) of one of the bodies (12) is radially inwardly offset so as to be receivable in the other (14) of the members. Prior to assembly, an adhesive (38), preferably in powder form, is applied to the offset end portion (34) and the two halves (12, 14) are joined together by first heating the larger diameter end portion to facilitate assembly, then telescoping the end portions with the inner end portion (34) then being heated so as both tightly to fit within the outer end portion and to fuse the adhesive (38).

6
Hekal Ihab M, Erlandson Paul M: Process for improving the organoleptic properties of canned green vegetables. The Continental Group October 1984: US 4478860 (6 worldwide citation)
A process for improving the organoleptic properties of canned green vegetables wherein vegetables blanched with a highly alkaline solution are suspended in a brine having an alkalinity adjusted to between about 25 to about 75 milliequivalents of hydroxyl ion in a hermetically sealed container internally coated with an organic coating filled with an alkaline earth compound such as MgO, the vegetables being sterilized at 250.degree.-300.degree. F. to an F.sub.o value of at least 6 whereby the original color and flavor of the vegetables are retained.

7
Erlandson Paul M: Container for pressurized products having a security label. The Continental Group January 1980: US 4183441 (6 worldwide citation)
A container for pressurized products wherein the container is formed of first and second container halves joined in a generally mid-height peripheral seam. Under abusive handling, the seam could open and a rupture type failure may occur. A shrunk plastics material film wrapper is applied along the central portion of the container in overlying relation to the peripheral seam and serves to permit controlled venting of the pressure from within the container in the event of such seam failure of the container per se.
8
Erlandson Paul M, Aschberger Anton A, Roth Donald J, Cary John T, Bartimes George F: Inert atmosphere seam welder. Continental Can March 1972: US 3652818 (6 worldwide citation)
This disclosure relates to a resistance seam welder for welding lapped sheet material, particularly can bodies, and includes means for effecting inert gas flow between roller electrode surfaces and the interface of the lapped can body edge portions, the flow effecting means being in the form of a manifold into which is introduced inert gas while flexible sealing means are provided for sealingly contacting opposite surfaces of the can body edge portions. In one embodiment of the invention the manifold is formed of two hollow bodies having pairs of walls in sealing contact with at least one pair of the walls being flexible to permit the passage of the lapped edges therethrough as the can body blank is moved along an associated horn. In an alternative embodiment the walls are relatively rigid and each carries flexible seals to permit the passage of can body blanks therethrough. In a final embodiment, the manifold is defined by a plurality of radial ports formed in the roller electrodes with each electrode carrying a pair of annular seals for localizing the inert gas at the seam as it is being welded.
9
Kerwin Joseph E, Erlandson Paul M: Convenience opening of containers for liquid products. The Continental Group November 1976: US 3990615 (5 worldwide citation)
An easy opening closure for pressurized fluids and a method of making the same. The container has an end panel with multiple small openings and a tape strip of plastic or plastic coated metal foil is secured to the panel by a heat activated adhesive in a way by which the plastic is extruded into the openings to form hollow bosses each defined by a peripheral annulus or torus formed into the respective opening and at least partially bonded to an uncoated raw edge of the opening, the boss having a disk-like center portion and the surrounding annulus providing a thick cross-section resisting doming of the areas of the tape covering the openings and inhibiting the development of incipient cracks and their propagation resulting in premature peeling of the cohesive bond. The areas of adherence of the adhesive to the external side of the panel are selectively controlled to obtain a desired, preferably uniform, peel resistance to the tape so that upon the tape being pulled by the user to separate it from the container during opening, the user will continue to pull to fully open the pour opening and vent. The invention also provides a permanent securement of the tail end of the strip to the end panel to prevent removal of the strip.
10
Erlandson Paul M: Bottom end tape seal. The Continental Group February 1979: US 4140241 (4 worldwide citation)
A two-piece can wherein the can body is of a drawn and wall ironed construction having an integral bottom with the bottom being in the form of a reinforced structure including alternating projecting ribs and recessed areas. The top of the can is closed by a conventional end unit. In use, the bottom becomes the top and the bottom is provided with a dispensing opening which is closed by a sealing tape. There are several embodiments of the end structure with there being different positions for the dispensing opening therein and different relationships of the sealing tape with respect to the end structure.

11
Erlandson Paul M: Method and apparatus for resistance welding utilizing application of high pressure. Continental Can October 1971: US 3610862 (4 worldwide citation)
A method and apparatus are disclosed herein for electrical resistance welding wherein a high pressure is applied by the welding electrodes to the overlapped portions of metallic blanks concurrently as a high current is supplied to the electrodes.

12
Erlandson Paul M, Aschberger Anton A, Cary John T: Inert atmosphere tack welder. Continental Can July 1972: US 3678241 (4 worldwide citation)
This disclosure relates to spot resistance welding or tack welding of edge portions of sheet material, particularly the welding of seams of containers. Means are provided for effecting gaseous flow around each of a pair of opposed electrodes with the flowing gas being preferably an inert gas and the flow being selectively one of pressure to one electrode and vacuum or partial vacuum to the other or pressure flow to both electrodes. Inert gas flow between the sheet portions being welded is also obtained.
13
Hekal Ihab M, Erlandson Paul M: Coating and container for retention of green color of vegetables. Continental Can October 1986: US 4615924 (3 worldwide citation)
A coating composition and container coated with said composition comprising a water insoluble organic coating and having incorporated therein zinc oxide and an alkaline earth metal material in an amount sufficient to effect green color retention of green vegetables.

14
Erlandson Paul M: Container for pressurized products. Continental Group January 1980: EP0007216 (3 worldwide citation)

15
Erlandson Paul M, Szatkowski Richard R: Method for high speed sinter molding. Continental Can February 1977: US 4009234 (3 worldwide citation)
A method for high speed sinter molding having endless chains mounted side by side. Mold halves are attached at spaced intervals down the chains. The paired mold halves come next to each other to form a female mold into which is deposited a polymeric material. A treating core extends inside the mold and as the mold traverses its path, it surrounds the core and the core deposits polymeric powder, heats the polymeric powder, and then cools it. At the end of the mold path, the finished article is ejected and is ready for the next operation. Another embodiment of the same essential process is to place the paired mold halves in juxtaposition as they moved down over the core. This will result in the fabrication of a continuous conduit. A container may be fabricated by using hollow mold halves with heating and deposition accomplished before the hollow mold halves are pressed together to form a hollow container.

16
Erlandson Paul M, Ullery Lee R, Brigham Roger S: Welded tubular articles and method for making the same. Continental Can September 1980: US 4223196 (2 worldwide citation)
A welded seam between overlapped edges of sheet material wherein the sheet material is heated to a temperature below the melting temperature and is forced together under high pressures to form a forged weld. The thickness of the sheet material in the weld area is reduced from double thickness to a thickness approaching a single thickness, with the weld interface being diagonally disposed. The weld is effected by grain growth across the interface such that the particular line along which the meeting surfaces of the metal are welded together is unobservable upon etching a cross section thereof and with magnification on the order of 100X. The heating is effected by applying to opposing edge portions which are to be overlapped and welded a high frequency current which effectively reduces heating to edge portions only of the metal with the heat effected area being in the vicinity of 0.1 inch.
17
Erlandson Paul M, Newman Fred C: A container. Continental Group November 1981: EP0040269 (2 worldwide citation)
A container for pressurized products formed of axially telescoped upper and lower container halves (6,7) joined in a generally peripheral mid-seam (10). The upper half (6) has an upper end portion (16) with a pour opening to which a closure (8) is applied and the bottom half (7) has a pressure-dispersing outwardly convexed bottom end portion (9). A support base (21) is fitted onto the bottom end portion (9) to provide a stable base for the container to support it in upright position. A sleeve (14) of plastics material film is shrink wrapped about the central portion of the container and also over part of the upper end portion (16) and about and under a shoulder of the base (21) and holds the two halves (6, 7) together and retains the support base (21) in association with the bottom end portion (9) of the bottom half (7); The plastic sleeve (14) is flexible and allows the support base (21) to cant about the bottom portion (9) if the can should be dropped on edge to cushion the fall and after the fall, the stretched plastic retracts and pulls the support (21) to its normal position on the lower end portion (9) to properly support the can.
18
Erlandson Paul M: Square wave resistance welding. Continental Can April 1972: US 3654422 (2 worldwide citation)
A method and apparatus for resistance welding of lapped workpieces using square wave power, wherein the power to the weld is supplied in the form of controlled bursts of waveforms through opposed welding electrodes.

19
Erlandson Paul M: Shock wave application of twist-off crowns. Continental Can January 1973: US 3712022 (2 worldwide citation)
This apparatus applies twist-off crowns to the tops of bottles by forming the crowns in place. A cap blank is placed over the threaded top of a bottle. A combustible gas is placed in a confined space above the cap blank. The combustible gas is ignited and the cap blank forms onto the bottle top making a functional twist-off cap from the crown blank. When the combustible gas is ignited, a compressive wave strikes the cap blank and forms it to the twist-off top.
20
Erlandson Paul M, Merz Edmund H: Apparatus for manufacture of highly oriented polymeric containers. Continental Can February 1975: US 3868206 (1 worldwide citation)
A method and apparatus for making highly oriented polymeric containers in which the method involves the deposition of a thermoplastic material onto an elastomeric form, fusing the material into a homogeneous mass and effecting temperature control and subsequent expansion of the form through the use of relatively incompressible fluids. The apparatus for practicing the process includes a support carrying the elastomeric form, a heating element and a fluid system for controlling the temperature of the material deposited upon the form and the expansion thereof.

21
Erlandson Paul M: Direct current welding system having minimum inductance. Continental Can February 1971: US 3564193 (1 worldwide citation)
An electrical resistance direct current welding system is disclosed including circuitry providing low inductance and having switching means connected adjacent the welding electrodes whereby the current flow to the electrodes may be interrupted with no damaging arc resulting.

22
Kerwin Joseph E, Erlandson Paul M: Convenience opening of containers for liquid products. / Capsule refermable pour contenants a liquides. Continental Can August 1978: CA 1036107

23
Erlandson Paul M, Merz Edmund H: Method and apparatus for manufacture of highly oriented polymeric containers. Continental Can October 1975: CA 975515

24
Erlandson Paul M: Electrohydraulic plus fuel detonation explosive forming. Continental Can January 1975: CA 960517

25
Hekal Ihab M, Erlandson Paul M: Process for improving the organoleptic properties of canned green vegetables. / Procede pour ameliorer les proprietes organoleptiques des legumes verts en conserve. Continental Group March 1985: CA 1184064
ABSTRACT OF THE INVENTION PROCESS FOR IMPROVING THE ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF CANNED GREEN VEGETABLES ABSTRACT OF THE INVENTION A process for improving the organoleptic properties of canned green vegetables wherein vegetables blanched with a highly alkaline solution axe suspended in a brine having an alkalinity adjusted to between about 25 to about 75 milliequivalents of hydroxyl ion in a hermetically sealed container internally coated with an organic coating filled with an alkaline earth compound such as MgO, the vegetables being sterilized at 250-300F to an Fo value of at least 6 whereby the original color and flavor of the vegetables are retained.

26
Erlandson Paul M: Container for pressurized products. / Traduction non-disponible. Continental Group June 1981: CA 1102719
ABSTRACT CONTAINER FOR PRESSURIZED PRODUCTS A container for pressurized products wherein the container is formed of first and second container halves joined in a generally mid-height peripheral seam. Under abusive handling, the seam could open and a rupture type failure may occur. A shrunk plastics material film wrapper is applied along the central portion of the container in overlying relation to the peripheral seam and serves to permit controlled venting of the pressure from within the container in the event of such seam failure of the container per se.
Title

27
Erlandson Paul M: Bottom end tape seal. / Ruban de scellement pour fond de contenant. Continental Group September 1980: CA 1085752
BOTTOM END TAPE SEAL ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A two-piece can wherein the can body is of a drawn and wall ironed construction having an integral bottom with the bottom being in the form of a reinforced structure including alternating projecting ribs and recessed areas. The top of the can is closed by a conventional end unit. In use, the bottom becomes the top and the bottom is provided with a dispensing opening which is closed by a sealing tape. There are several embodiments of the end structure with there being different positions for the dispensing opening therein and different relationships of the sealing tape with respect to the end structure.

28
Roth Donald J, Hekal Ihab M, Erlandson Paul M, Walter John: Double cup container and method of forming same. / Gobelet a paroi double, et methode de fabrication connexe. Continental Group August 1982: CA 1130732
DOUBLE CUP CONTAINER AND METHOD OF FORMING SAME ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A container which is formed of two cup-shaped members, one member being a bottom and the other member being a top. The two members have end walls which are configurated to resist deformation under high internal pressures as may occur in beverage containers. The members have cylindrical bodies and an end portion of one of the bodies is radially inwardly offset so as to be receivable in the other of the members. Prior to assembly, an adhesive, preferably in powder form, is applied to the offset end portion and the two halves are joined together by first heating the larger diameter end portion to facilitate assembly, then telescoping the end portions with the inner end portion then being heated so as both tightly to fit within the outer end portion and to fuse the adhesive.

29
Erlandson Paul M: Method of fabricating tubular bodies. / Methode de faconnage d'elements tubulaires. Continental Can January 1979: CA 1046253
ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This disclosure relates to a method of fabricating tubular bodies having at least one closed end by advancing material along a predetermined path of travel in a predetermined direction, forming the material into a tube during its advancement, placing a closure in-line with the advancement of the tube, and utilizing the motion of the advancing tube to assemble the latter with the closure.
30
Erlandson Paul M: Article having surface treatment for welding. Continental Can August 1972: US 3686462
This disclosure relates to electrical resistance welding and more particularly to the surface treatment of metal members along the faying and electrode engageable surfaces thereof. The faying surfaces are embossed or formed by a high energy rate method so as to be of a uniform finish whereby there will be a predetermined resistance between engaged faying surfaces thereby providing for a better control on the power required for forming a weld and the resultant metal weld.

31
Erlandson Paul M: Surface treatment for welding. Continental Can August 1971: US 3597574
This disclosure relates to electrical resistance welding and more particularly to the surface treatment of metal members along the faying and electrode engageable surfaces thereof. The faying surfaces are embossed or formed by a high energy rate method so as to be of a uniform finish whereby there will be a predetermined resistance between engaged faying surfaces thereby providing for a better control on the power required for forming a weld and the resultant metal weld.
32
Erlandson Paul M: Method and apparatus for resistance welding utilizing application of high pressure. September 1973: US 3761671
A method and apparatus are disclosed herein for electrical resistance welding wherein a high pressure is applied by the welding electrodes to the overlapped portions of metallic blanks concurrently as a high current is supplied to the electrodes.