Professor Robert Herman passed away on February 13, 1997. The world of science has lost one of its brightest stars, and his colleagues and friends worldwide mourn the loss of this Renaissance man.
Dr. Herman was born in the Bronx area of New York City on August 29, 1914 to Louis (1889–) and Marie "Molly" Herman (1890–). Louis and Molly were Jews who had immigrated from Russia, —Louis from Tula, Russia, had come with his parents in 1906. He returned to Russia in 1908 for two years and married Marie Lozinsky who was born in Moscow, but her family had moved to Tula when she was two years old. Her family were involved in the production of silver tableware, goblets, etc. Louis and Marie married and came to the US in 1910. Louis was a truck salesman. Robert's siblings included Mark and Daniel. He attended Evander Childs High School, graduating in 1935. He graduated cum laude with special honors in physics from the City College of New York in 1935, and in 1940, was awarded master's and doctoral degrees in physics from Princeton University in the area of molecular spectroscopy.
As a graduate student Bob had already exhibited eclectic tendencies in diverse fields by also working in solid state physics, as well as straddling theory and experiment. He spent the academic year 1940–1941 working on the Bush Differential Analyzer at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, and another year teaching physics at the City College of New York.
In 1942 he left teaching to work at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, all research centers for the war effort. He worked on such problems as the proximity fuse for naval antiaircraft gunfire, which was used effectively during the war. It was then that Bob became intrigued with defining and solving complex problems. He shifted his attention from theory and laboratory work and became deeply involved with field testing of the proximity device and the operational problems associated with its use in the fleet. In 1945, he received the Naval Ordinance Development Award.
After World War II, Bob spent another decade at the Applied Physics Lab pursuing research in spectroscopy and condensed-matter physics. It was during this period that he and Ralph Alpher did their now famous work on cosmology. In 1948, as a consequence of their studies of nucleo-synthesis in the early expanding big bang universe model, they made the first theoretical prediction of the existence of a residual, homogeneous, isotopic, blackbody radiation (microwave radiation) that pervades the universe as a vestige of the initial big bang explosion.
This work received some notice at the time, but soon fell into obscurity. In 1964, the radiation was accidentally detected by two scientists at Bell Laboratories while trying to correct a malfunction in a radio dish. After eliminating every conceivable source of interference, they concluded that the radiation source was not of earthly origin. After learning about this work, a group of physicists from Princeton University interpreted it as background radiation of cosmic origin, but without reference to the 1948 paper of Herman and Alpher. The big bang model for the origin of the universe became widely accepted, and in 1978 a Nobel Prize was awarded to the Bell scientists for their detection of the cosmic background radiation. When recalling the culmination of this series of events, Bob would remark graciously, "You don't give recognition to the person, you give it to the work."
Nevertheless, the team of Herman and Alpher were eventually recognized for their pioneering contribution. In 1993, the National Academy of Sciences announced that they would share the Henry Draper Medal, the oldest award of the Academy, for their contributions to astronomical physics. They were recognized "for their insight and skill in developing a physical model of the evolution of the universe and in predicting the existence of a microwave background radiation years before this radiation was serendipitously discovered; through this work they were participants in one of the major intellectual achievements of the 20th century." They also received the Magellanic Premium of the American Philosophical Society, the John Wetherhill Gold Medal of the Franklin Institute, and the Georges Vanderlinden Prix of the Belgian Royal Academy.
In 1956, Bob joined the General Motors Research Laboratory as head of the basic science group, later renamed the theoretical physics department. He introduced science into the affairs of his employer by inventing a new science, traffic science. Drawing upon his background in physics, he first directed his attention to the description of the microscopic behavior of traffic: the detailed manner in which individual drivers avoid coinciding with each other in space and time, at least most of the time.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Bob joined with the late Elliott Montroll and others in developing the car-following theory of traffic flow, a theory that has stood the test of time and is still the state of the art today. Shortly thereafter, he and Ilya Prigogine, now a Nobel Laureate, developed a theory of multilane traffic flow. For more than thirty-five years, Bob moved into diverse fields of traffic science, always leaving his characteristic mark of excellence. In recent years, he worked with his students and colleagues to develop a "two-fluid model of town traffic," a description of vehicular traffic on urban road networks, an extension of the theory that he formulated with Prigogine some years before. This theory, along with his earlier work, has been significant in the development of the now-emerging Intelligent Transportation Systems concept.
In 1979, Bob joined the faculty of the University of Texas at Austin with a joint appointment as professor of physics, in the Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics, and the L .P. Gilvin Professor in Civil Engineering. At the time of his death, he was the L. P. Gilvin Centennial Professor Emeritus in Civil Engineering.
Throughout his scientific life, Bob's hallmark was exploring new frontiers in diverse fields of science. He excelled in so many fields that it is difficult to do justice to all his achievements. He explored the far reaches of the universe and also investigated the structure of elemental units of matter. In his spare time, Bob was known to ponder the physics of musical instruments, such as the mechanics of a cello bow and the acoustics of the English flute. He enjoyed playing and collecting antique cellos and shared his wonder and joy with professional musicians and instrument makers.
As a boy in New York, Bob spent hours pouring over art books in the public libraries. This love of art took expression in the mid-1980s when he began creating small sculptures from exotic woods and metals. For the next decade he pursued this creative and meaningful quest to find the least-mediated, least-quantifiable relation between matter and the imagination. An exhibition of several of his carvings was presented at the National Academy of Engineering in Washington, DC, in 1994, at the College of Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin in 1995, and at the Leu Art Gallery of Bellmont University in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1996.
During the last several years of his life, Bob grew increasingly concerned, even alarmed, about the state of education in the United States, the changing yet increasingly critical role of the university in society, the increasing encroachment of political considerations on the education and research enterprise, the constant attacks on academic freedom, and the continuing erosion of the base upon which the nation's great achievements in science and technology have been attained. These were topics that would almost surely put him in a somber mood. But the conclusion of any conversation about these topics was always the same: we must go on struggling, we must remember what matters, and we must encourage students to do good work. In his last two years, he busily compiled and analyzed data on all sorts of performance indicators of quality and productivity of university departments. This was part of a broader effort to model universities as complex systems.
Bob's work would never be completely finished and his curiosity never fully satisfied. Every additional minute added to his life would have generated yet another new idea and a fresh perspective on one of the many problems that fascinated him.
Bob is survived by his wife, Helen, and three daughters. Jane B. Herman and Lois E. Herman live in Farmington Hills, Michigan. Dr. Roberta Herman lives in Austin with her husband, Dr. Ron Humphrey, and their two sons, Brandon and Parker.
Larry R. Faulkner, President
The University of Texas at Austin
John R. Durbin, Secretary
The General Faculty
This memorial resolution was prepared by a special committee consisting of Professors Clyde E. Lee (chair), C. Michael Walton, and Hani S. Mahmassani.
(Some additional material and photos added by Mel Oake).
Robert Herman wrote a Foreword to the Collected Papers of Robert Hofstadter.
He sent a copy of the foreward to Professor Tom Griffy in UT Physics Department:
Excellent interview of Robert Herman by Martin Harwit on April 11, 1983,
Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics,
College Park, MD USA,
Another In Memoriam
Famed physicist, OR (operational research) pioneer, "father of transportation science" and sculptor remembered as a "scientist's scientist".
Robert Herman, a leading light in the wide world of science, died on Feb. 13, 1997, after a long, brave fight against cancer. His last e-mail messages to some of his friends revolved on matters of science and his concern for a doctoral student. This was Robert Herman at his best until the very end, a scientist's scientist and a loving mentor.
The loss of Herman is hard to bear for those who have known him, but it is more appropriate to celebrate his life than lament his loss, and I know that this is how Herman would like it. The world of operations research is richer for having had Robert Herman in its fold over the past 40 years or so.
Herman was a leading light within ORSA, joining the society shortly after its inception, serving on its Council and then as its president. As an ORSA officer and practitioner, he challenged the society to continue redefining its mission as one of addressing new, important societal problems and not just refining solutions to old ones. One of the unfinished projects that his untimely death forced him to leave behind was an attempt to model a university as a system and try to develop a methodology for improving such a system. "Many leaders of higher education," he wrote, "believe that the current period calls for more than the usual, ongoing institutional restructuring of the American academic enterprise."
Exploring new frontiers in diverse fields of science was Herman's hallmark throughout his scientific life. He excelled in so many diverse fields of science that one is hard pressed to do justice to all his achievements. In ORSA, he will always be remembered as the undisputed father of transportation science, having done some of the most important seminal work on modeling of traffic systems, having led the founding of the Transportation Science Section, and having served as the founding editor of the Transportation Science journal. But the world of science has also been served by Herman exploring the far reaches of the universe, as well as investigating the structure of elemental units of matter. In his spare time, he pondered the physics of musical instruments, such as the mechanics of a cello bow and the acoustics of the English flute. Many of the people who met him described him as "a Renaissance Man." This may be an appropriate label, except that it raises the bar for anyone else aspiring for the same appellation.
Herman obtained his doctoral degree in physics at Princeton, in 1940, in the area of molecular spectroscopy. As a graduate student, he had already exhibited eclectic tendencies in diverse fields by also working in solid state physics, as well as straddling theory and experiment. After an academic year working on the Bush Differential Analyzer at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, and another year teaching physics at his alma mater, the City College of New York, he joined the war effort, working on such problems as the proximity fuse for naval anti-aircraft gunfire which was effectively used in World War II. It was then that Herman became intrigued with complex problems. He drifted away from laboratory work and became deeply involved with service testing of the proximity device and the operational problems associated with its use in the fleet.
With the end of World War II, he spent a decade at the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University, the center of the war effort, pursuing research in spectroscopy and condensed matter physics. It was during this period that he and Ralph Alpher, a student of George Gamow, did their now-famous work in cosmology. As a consequence of their studies in nucleosynthesis in the early expanding big bang universe, they made the first theoretical prediction, in 1948, of the existence of a residual, homogeneous, isotropic black body radiation (microwave radiation) that pervades the universe, as a vestige of the initial big bang explosion.
In 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson of Bell Laboratories accidentally detected such radiation while trying to correct a malfunction in a radio dish. After eliminating every conceivable source of interference, Penzias and Wilson concluded that the radiation source was not of earthly origin. Hearing of this work, a group of physicists from Princeton University interpreted it as a background radiation of cosmic origin, but without reference to the 1948 paper of Herman and Alpher. In 1978, Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize for their detection of the cosmic background radiation.
In the years that followed, Herman and Alpher received wide recognition for their pioneering contribution. They received the Magellanic Premium of the American Philosophical Society in 1975, and the Draper Medal of the National Academy of Sciences in 1993, 45 years after their remarkable paper. They also received the John Wetherhill Gold Medal of the Franklin Institute, and the Georges Vanderlinden Prix of the Belgian Royal Academy.
In 1956, Herman joined the General Motors Research Laboratory with a mission to build a basic science activity. He did so as head of a Basic Science Group, later renamed Theoretical Physics Department. At the same time, he introduced science in the affairs of his employer by inventing a new science, traffic theory. Starting in the late 1950s, he collaborated with Elliott Montroll and others to develop a car-following theory of traffic flow which has stood the test of time and is still the state of the art today. For this seminal contribution, Herman and his collaborators received the Lanchester Prize of ORSA and the Johns Hopkins University, in 1959. Indisputably, this work launched the new field of traffic science, with Herman and his colleagues founding the Transportation Science Section of ORSA.
Herman continued making seminal contributions in traffic science. With Nobel Laureate Ilya Prigogine, he developed a kinetic theory of multilane traffic flow based on a Boltzmann-like model of interaction of cars with each other. In recent years, he and others developed a "two-fluid model of town traffic" based on the Prigogine-Herman model. The two-fluid model has been verified with data collected in various metropolitan areas and promises to contribute to the development of intelligent transportation systems, which are internationally pursued today.
While founding new sciences, Herman did not neglect physics. In the late 1950s, he collaborated with Robert Hofstadter of Stanford University in developing a theoretical interpretation of experiments of scattering of high-energy electrons on nucleons (neutrons and protons) conducted in the linear accelerator installation of Stanford. The theoretical models suggested a charge structure for the atomic nucleus which is widely accepted today. In 1961, Robert Hofstadter received the Nobel Prize for this contribution.
In 1979, Herman joined the faculty of the University of Texas at Austin as a professor of Civil Engineering. Once more, he distinguished himself as a teacher and mentor of young people, contributing a steady stream of contributions to traffic science even after he was named the L. P. Gilvin Centennial Professor Emeritus of the university.
Characteristically, his activities were not confined to science. Since the mid-1980s, he was engaged in yet another research which, while apparently very different and unknown to most, was no less accomplished, creative or meaningful. It concerned the least-mediated, least-quantifiable relation between matter and the imagination. And it took the form of small-scale, quasi-representational sculptures of exotic hardwoods. An exhibition of several of Herman's carvings was presented at the National Academy of Engineering in Washington, D.C., in 1994, and at the Leu Art Gallery of the Bellmont University in Nashville, Tenn., in 1996.
Three basic loves
What made Herman's presence among us so precious? I think it was a combination of unusual attributes, and among them I would cite three basic loves: the love of human spirit; the love of science and the search for truth; and the love of life. He urged his colleagues, by word and by example, to make the best of themselves. He let them know that it was all right to have fun while doing science; in fact, they would do better science that way. And he did not just do science, but he lived science, searching for the cause of everyday experiences. People who met him even briefly left with an indelible impression of an unwavering human spirit at its best, searching for truth. Herman himself used to quote the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus who said, "Nature seeks to hide."
In recent years, Herman worried about the well being of our culture. He felt that "there was an ever-increasing tendency to support pragmatic applied research at the expense of fundamental research," and he urged everyone to "never forget where our basic knowledge comes from." He made these points while accepting the 1993 Roy W. Crum Distinguished Service Award of the Transportation Research Board, one of the many awards he received over the years. And he quoted Leonardo da Vinci as a supporter of the same principle of respect for basic knowledge. He recalled that da Vinci said, "Those who fall in love with practice without science are like a sailor who enters a ship without a helm or a compass and does not know whither he is going." In the same acceptance remarks, Herman demonstrated his legendary sense of humor, often with self-effacing overtones, by remarking: " ... may I express my heartfelt gratitude on receiving this important distinction. I should like to add that I have learned something very important from this experience; that is, —if you live long enough, even something good can happen."
In addition to the awards already mentioned above, Herman received many others, including the ORSA/TIMS John von Neumann Theory Prize for "fundamental contributions to the theory of vehicular traffic"; the William A. Patterson Distinguished Lectureship in Transportation from Northwestern University (1993); the Philip McCord Morse Lectureship of ORSA (1991); the ORSA Transportation Science Section's first Lifetime Achievement Award (1990) which was named after him; the New York Academy of Sciences Award in Physical and Mathematical Sciences (1981); and ORSA's George E. Kimball Medal (1976).
He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1978 for his contributions to the science of vehicular traffic, and in 1979 he was elected a fellow in the mathematical and physical sciences of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Perhaps what best describes Herman is yet another quotation from the ancient Greek philosophers that he so admired, this one from Aristotle, who said:
"There is a kind of life which rises above the limits of human nature; men will live it not by nature of their humanity, but by virtue of something in them that is divine. We should not listen to those who exhort a man to live only according to rational reasoning, but we should live according to the highest thing that is in us, for small though it is, it is far more valuable than the rest."
-Denos C. Gazis
March 3, 1997
Institution of Operations Research/Management Sciences
April 1997 € Volume 24
Editor's note: Denos Gazis met Robert Herman in 1957 when he joined Herman's Basic Science Group at GM. Gazis participated in the pioneering work on car-following traffic theory, and was co-recipient of the Lanchester Prize for this work. His friendship and collaboration with Herman continued over the years, even after Gazis left GM to join IBM. Their last joint paper was published last year. Gazis was also the third recipient of the Herman Lifetime Achievement Award of the Transportation Science Section of ORSA. Kindred spirits, Herman and Gazis frequently charmed audiences by acting as each other's straight man. Gazis now feels compelled to finish some unfinished joint work, such as the study of the physics of the cello bow.
UT Campus Newpaper, On Campus, October, 1980, Joyce Pole.
Robert Herman (left) and Ralph Alpher. In the middle is George Gamow, materializing out of a bottle of 'Ylem', the primordial soup from which our universe originated.
Ylem is a term which was used by George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and their associates in the late 1940s for a hypothetical original substance or condensed state of matter, which became subatomic particle and elements as we understand them today. The term ylem was actually coined by Ralph Alpher. The word reportedly comes from an obsolete Middle English philosophical word that Gamow's assistant, Ralph Alpher, came across while thumbing through a dictionary, which means something along the lines of "primordial substance from which all matter is formed" (which in ancient mythology of many different cultures was called the cosmic egg), and derives from the Greek hylem, "matter".
HERMAN, Helen Kellerage 98, of Austin, passed away on Tuesday, February 4, 2014. She was born on June 27, 1915 to Morris and Minnie Kellerage in New York. Helen spent her several years in New York, Michigan, and most current Austin, Texas. She attended Hunter College in New York. She is preceded in death by her parents; her husband, Robert Herman. Helen Herman was the dearest mother of Roberta, Jane and Lois Herman; loving mother-in-law to Ronald Humphrey and loving grandmother of Brandon and Parker Humphrey. She lived her life for her family, dedicating all of her love and support. Her devotion to her family and friends will never be forgotten, nor will her incredible sense of humor.