ISOSPIN

All quarks, of course, have A = 1/3. The u and d
quarks form an isospin doublet, T = 1/2, while the other four
quarks are isospin singlets, T = 0. Quote from Wikipedia: “In
modern descriptions of hadron
interaction, it has become more obvious to draw Feynman diagrams that trace
through individual quarks composing the interacting baryons
and mesons,
rather than counting hypercharge (and other) quantum
numbers.”

ISOSPIN IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Isospin decomposition is handled just the
same way as angular momentum or spin decomposition, by use of
Clebsch-Gordan coefficents.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963, awarded
to Eugene Paul Wigner, “for his contributions to the theory of
the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly
through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry
principles.”

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