ISOSPIN



All quarks, of course, have A = 1/3. The u and d quarks form an isospin doublet, T = 1/2, while the other four quarks are isospin singlets, T = 0. Quote from Wikipedia: “In modern descriptions of hadron interaction, it has become more obvious to draw Feynman diagrams that trace through individual quarks composing the interacting baryons and mesons, rather than counting hypercharge  (and other) quantum numbers.”








ISOSPIN IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS




Isospin decomposition is handled just the same way as angular momentum or spin decomposition, by use of Clebsch-Gordan coefficents.



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963, awarded to Eugene Paul Wigner, “for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles.”

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