# Lecture Log for PHY 309L

This page logs lectures of the Elementary Physics (II) course (PHY 309 L) taught by Professor Vadim Kaplunovsky in Fall 2014 (unique #57915). Also, at the bottom of this page there is a list of skipped sections.

To help the students follow the class, this log lists the subjects covered by each lecture, with references to appropriate textbook chapters, sections, and subsections, and also external links, if any.

Since the pace of the course will vary depending on how well (or how poorly) the students understand the material, I would not be able to tell in advance which specific subjects I will cover during a particular future lecture. Therefore, at any particular time, this log will be limited to the lectures I have already given, plus one tentative listing of what I plan to say in the very next lecture.

## Lectures

August 27 (Wednesday):
Class organisation.
Electic charges and their effects; positive and negative charges; electrons (§12.1).
Conductors, insulators, and semiconductors (§12.2).
August 29 (Friday):
Induced charges in conductors; polarization of dielectrics (§12.2).
Coulomb Law; units of electric charges (§12.3).
Forces due to multiple charges; begin the electric field (§12.4).
September 1 (Monday):
Labor day holiday, no class.
September 3 (Wednesday):
The electric field E: fields and forces; electic field of a single charge; field of multiple charges; the electric field lines (§12.4).
Strong electric fields and ionization; the electrostatic scrubbers (§12.2).
September 5 (Friday):
Potential energy of electrostatic forces; electric potential and voltages; relation to the electric fields (§12.5).
Capacitors and capacitance (non-textbook).
September 8 (Monday):
Energy stored in a capacitor (non-textbook).
Electric current; electric circuits; analogy to the water flow; voltages as analogues of pressures (§13.1).
Ohm's Law and electric resistance (§13.2).
Begin series and parallel circuits (§13.3).
September 10 (Wednesday):
Series and parallel circuits; net resistance of a circuit (§13.3).
The electromotive Force (EMF) and the internal resistance (§13.2 and non-textbook).
September 12 (Friday):
Voltmeters and Ammeters (§13.3). Resistivity (non-textbook, but see Wikipedia article).
Electric power: P=V×I; examples; dependence of power on R at fixed voltage and at fixed current; fuses.
September 15 (Monday):
Alternating current: definition; sine wave, amplitude, and frequency; effective (RMS) current and effective (RMS) voltage; power of the alternating current; household two-phase power; AC vs DC (§13.5).
September 17 (Wednesday):
Magnetism: magnets and magnetic forces; magnetic fields and field lines; planet Earth as a magnet (§14.1).
Magnetic fields of electric currents: Oersted effect; field of a straight wire; the right screw rule; forces between parallel wires (§14.2).
September 19 (Friday):
Magnetic forces on moving charges (§14.2). Cross product of vectors (non-textbook, but see Math-is-fun page).
September 22 (Monday):
Magnetic fields and forces (§14.2–3): Magnetic force on a wire; magnetic field of a straight wire; magnetic force between parallel wires; magnetic torque on a current loop or coil; electric motors; magnetic field of a curved wire; right screw rule for the field of a current loop; magnetic field of a solenoid.
September 24 (Wednesday):
Ferromagnetism (non-textbook but see HyperPhysics article).
Magnetic induction (§14.4): magnetic flux through a loop or a coil; Faraday's Law of magnetic induction; examples.
September 26 (Friday):
Magnetic induction (§14.4–5): Faraday Law; rotating coil and the AC generators; DC generators; self-inductance and Lenz rule; mutual inductance; transformers; eddy currents.
September 29 (Monday):
Review of harmonic oscillators (§6.5): examples of harmonic oscillators; sine-wave motion and its frequency, amplitude, and initial phase; frequency vs. period; linear restoring force and harmonic oscillations; 2πf=√ k/m  for a mass on a spring and 2πf=√ g/L  for a pendulum; amplitude and initial phase follow from initial push or pull; energy in harmonic oscillations.
Waves (§15.1): energy transfer between coupled oscillators; waves in continuous bodies like a rubber hose or a slinky; wave propagation vs. particle motion; longitudinal and transverse waves; sound waves; seismic waves and the Earth's core; EM waves.
October 1 (Wednesday):
Midterm exam #1.
October 1 (Friday):
Wave math (§15.1–2): functions of 2 or more variables; superposition of waves; running waves and wave speed; periodic waves, period and frequency; periodicity in space and wavelength; λ×f=u.
October 6 (Monday):
Harmonic waves and interference (§15.2 and my notes):
examples of λ×f=u; harmonic running waves; interference of two hamonic signals; effect of Δφ; constructive and destructive interference; interference between sounds of two speakers; beats; introduction to standing waves.
October 8 (Wednesday):
Standing waves and resonances (§15.3–4 and my notes):
standing waves on a string; resonance; math of standing waves; nodes and antinodes; resonant frequencies of a string; harmonics; pitch timbre of a musical note; standing waves in air columns; nodes of pressure and nodes of displacement; open and closed ends; resonant frequencies of an air column.
October 10 (Friday):
Speed of waves (§15.2, §15.4, and non-textbook): speed=√ stiffness/density ; speed of waves in a string; speed of sound in liquids and solids; speed of sound in air and other gases; speed of EM waves.
October 13 (Monday):
Electromagnetic waves and their spectrum: radio, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and γ-rays (§16.1). Colors of light and how we see them; colors of objects (§16.2).
October 15 (Wednesday):
Colors (§16.2): mixing colors; additive and subtractive colors; scattering and the color of the sky.
Wave diffraction and two-slit interference of light (§16.3).
October 17 (Friday):
Interference and diffraction of light (§16.3–4): thin slit diffraction; diffraction peaks and their widths; diffraction in square and round holes; diffraction gratings; thin field interference; newton rings.
October 20 (Monday):
Thin film interference; speed of light in materials; antireflecting coating; Newton rings (§16.3).
Polarization (§16.5): 2 plarizations of transverse waves on a string; polarizations of EM waves; polarized and unpolarized light; polarization filters; examples and applications of polarized light.
October 22 (Wednesday):
Reflection of light (§17.1): light rays and geometric optics; reflection and Θreflectionincidence; mirrors and images.
Images in curved mirrors (§17.4): image in a convex mirror, its size and location; image in a concave mirror, its size and location; real and imaginary images.
October 24 (Friday):
Refraction; Snell's Law; total internal reflection; n(λ) and making a spectrum with a prism; rainbows (§17.2).
October 27 (Monday):
Lenses (§17.3): convex lenses focus light; real and imaginary images in a convex lens; 3–ray tracing technique; distances to images and their sizes.
October 29 (Wednesday):
Lenses and curved mirrors (§17.3–4): negative lenses; ray tracing for curved mirrors; similarities between lenses and mirrors.
Photographic cameras and eyes (§17.5): pinhole camera; single lens camera; compound lenses; human eye as a camera; correcting eyeglasses.
October 31 (Friday):
Midterm exam #2.
November 3 (Monday):
Optical devices (§17.5): correcting eyeglasses; loupes; microscopes; maybe telescopes and binoculars.
November 5 (Wednesday):
Finish telescopes and biniculars (§17.5).
History of atoms; atoms and molecules; chemical reactions; atomic and molecular weights (§18.1).
November 7 (Friday):
November 10 (Monday):
Nuclei: α, β, and γ rays; discovery of the nucleus (§18.3); protons and neutrons; isotopes; atomic mass; (§19.1).
November 12 (Wednesday):
Nuclear forces and decays (§19.2 and non-textbook): Strong, weak, and electric forces on nucleons; nuclear binding energy; α, β, γ, and β+ decays; decay chains.
November 14 (Friday):
Nuclear decays and reactions (§19.2–3): Exponential decay and the half-life time; nuclear reactions; E=mc^2 and nuclear energy; fusion reactions.
November 17 (Monday):
Nuclear fission (§19.4–5): The curve of binding energy; fission reactions; nuclear chain reaction; critical mass; slow fission and nuclear reactors; moderators and control rods; post-fission β-decays; Fukushima accident; fast fission and nuclear weapons; implosion; thermoniclear weapons.
November 19 (Wednesday):
Introduction to quantum mechanics (§18.4–5): Quantization of EM energy; photons; E=hf and p=h/λ; spectral lines and discrete energies of atoms; Rydberg formula for the hydrogen atom; Bohr atom; mentioned de Broiglie waves.
November 21 (Friday):
Quantum Mechanics (§18.5): De Broiglie waves and quantization of angular momentum; wave function and probablities; the uncertainty principle; Pauli principle for multi-electron atoms; the periodic table of elements.
November 24 (Monday):
Midterm exam #3.
November 26 (Wednesday):
Relative motion (§20.1): Frames of reference; adding velocities; intertial frames and Newton Laws; the classic relativity principle; non-inertial frames and the inertial forces (G-forces).
November 28 (Friday):
Thanksgiving holiday, no class.
December 1 (Monday):
Special relativity (§20.2–3): Speed of light; Michelson–Morley experiment; Einstein postulates; time dilation; length contraction.
December 3 (Wednesday):
Special relativity (§20.3–4): Lorentz contraction and time dilation in different framce of reference; the twin paradox; relativity of simultaneity; past, future, signals, and the light-cone; 4D space-time; relativistic energy and momentum; rest mass; energy and momentum of a photon.
December 5 (Friday):
Introduction to general relativity (§20.5): Accelerating frames and inertial forces; equivalence principle; curvilinear coordinates and curved spacetimes; time dilation due to gravity; light bending by gravity; black holes.
Plan for December 10 (Wednesday):
Final exam, 7–10 PM in room CLA 0.102.

## Skipped Sections

When I decide to skip some subjects covered in the textbook, I shall list them here and announce them in class. The exams will not involve the skipped material.

• In chapter 15, I have skiped the musical intervals and scales (§15.5) and the Doppler effect.
• The whole chapter 21 is skipped.